Farm Labor - Publication

0109 - Farm Labor - 11-16-2017.pdf

Agricultural Labor

Farm Labor - Publication

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Farm Labor
ISSN: 1949-0909

Released November 16, 2017, by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, United States
Department of Agriculture (USDA).

October Hired Workers Increase 5 Percent, Wage Rates Increase 1 Percent From Previous Year
Workers hired directly by farm operators numbered 840,000 for the reference week of October 8-14, 2017, up 5 percent
from the October 2016 reference week. There were 879,000 workers hired directly by farm operators on the Nation’s
farms and ranches during the week of July 9-15, 2017, up 5 percent from the July 2016 reference week.
Farm operators paid their hired workers an average wage of $13.42 per hour during the October 2017 reference week, up
1 percent from the previous year. Field workers received an average of $12.83 per hour, up 2 percent. Livestock workers
earned $12.22, down slightly from the previous year. The field and livestock worker combined wage rate, at
$12.66 per hour, was up 1 percent from October 2016. Hired laborers worked an average of 41.6 hours during the October
2017 reference week, unchanged from a year earlier.
Farm operators paid their hired workers an average wage of $13.23 per hour during the July 2017 reference week, up
2 percent from the previous year. Field workers received an average of $12.57 per hour, up 2 percent. Livestock workers
earned $12.21 per hour, up slightly from the previous year. The field and livestock worker combined wage rate, at
$12.47 per hour, was up 2 percent from July 2016. Hired laborers worked an average of 41.4 hours during the July 2017
reference week, compared with 41.2 hours a year earlier.
The 2017 all hired worker annual average wage rate was $13.32 per hour, up 3 percent from the 2016 annual average
wage. The 2017 field worker annual average wage rate was $12.51 per hour, up 2 percent from the 2016 annual average.
The 2017 annual average combined wage for field and livestock workers was $12.47, up 2 percent from the 2016 annual
average of $12.20 per hour.
October Reference Week
For the October 2017 reference week, the largest increases in the number of hired workers from the previous year
occurred in the Mountain I (Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming), Mountain II (Colorado, Nevada, and Utah), and Pacific
(Oregon and Washington) regions. Pacific saw the largest increase, with 37 percent more workers on the region’s farms.
The largest percentage decreases in the number of hired workers from the previous year occurred in the Appalachian I
(North Carolina and Virginia), Cornbelt II (Iowa and Missouri), and Northeast II (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania) regions. The Appalachian I and Cornbelt II regions saw the largest decreases, with 17 percent less workers
during the reference week.
The largest percentage increases in average wage rates for all hired workers occurred in the Appalachian II (Kentucky,
Tennessee, and West Virginia), California, and Hawaii regions.
July Reference Week
For the July 2017 reference week, the largest percentage increases in the number of hired workers from the previous year
occurred in the Mountain I (Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming), Mountain II (Colorado, Nevada, and Utah), and Pacific
(Oregon and Washington) regions. The Mountain I region saw the biggest increase, with 36 percent more workers on the
region’s farms.

The largest percentage decreases in the number of hired workers from the previous year occurred in the Appalachian I
(North Carolina and Virginia), Cornbelt II (Iowa and Missouri), and Northeast II (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and
Pennsylvania) regions. The Cornbelt II region saw the largest decrease, with 15 percent less workers during the reference
week.
The largest percentage increases in average wage rates for all hired workers occurred in the Appalachian II (Kentucky,
Tennessee, and West Virginia), Florida, and Hawaii regions.

2

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Contents
Hired Workers and Wage Rates – United States .................................................................................................................... 5
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: October 8-14, 2017 ................................................... 6
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: October 8-14, 2017 ................................................................ 7
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: July 9-15, 2017 ......................................................... 8
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: July 9-15, 2017 ...................................................................... 9
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: April 9-15, 2017...................................................... 10
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: April 9-15, 2017 .................................................................. 11
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: January 8-14, 2017.................................................. 12
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: January 8-14, 2017 .............................................................. 13
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: October 9-15, 2016 ................................................. 14
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: October 9-15, 2016 .............................................................. 15
Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: July 10-16, 2016 ..................................................... 16
Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: July 10-16, 2016 .................................................................. 17
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region and 48 States:
October 8-14, 2017 ............................................................................................................................................................... 18
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region and 48 States: July 9-15, 2017 ............... 18
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region and 48 States:
October 9-15, 2016 ............................................................................................................................................................... 19
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region and 48 States: July 10-16, 2016 ............. 19
All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region and 48 States: October 8-14, 2017.......................... 20
All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region and 48 States: July 9-15, 2017 ................................ 20
All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region and 48 States: October 9-15, 2016.......................... 21
All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region and 48 States: July 10-16, 2016 .............................. 21
Field and Livestock Workers by Type of Farm .................................................................................................................... 22
Hired Workers by Economic Class of Farm ......................................................................................................................... 22
Hired Workers by Number of Workers on Farm .................................................................................................................. 22
Hired Workers by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System ............................................................................. 23

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

3

Wages by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System .......................................................................................... 23
Annual Average Number of Hired Workers and Hours Worked - Region and United States: 2016 and 2017 .................... 24
Annual Average Wage Rates - Region and United States: 2016 and 2017........................................................................... 25
Farm Labor Regions–Map ................................................................................................................................................... 26
Farm Labor Definitions ........................................................................................................................................................ 27
Survey Methodology ............................................................................................................................................................ 29
Information Contacts ............................................................................................................................................................. 31

4

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Hired Workers and Wage Rates – United States
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Farm employment

July 10-16,
2016

October 9-15,
2016

January 8-14,
2017

April 9-15,
2017

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

Hired workers
150 days or more .....................
149 days or less .......................
Total ..............................................

606
234
840

578
220
798

450
83
533

536
137
673

631
248
879

618
222
840

(hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week)
Hours worked by hired workers ..........

41.2

41.6

38.0

40.4

41.4

41.6

(dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour)
Wage rate 1 ........................................
Field and livestock combined .........
Field .........................................
Livestock ..................................
All hired workers ............................
1

12.27
12.32
12.15
13.02

12.50
12.59
12.25
13.25

12.35
12.15
12.66
13.43

12.32
12.22
12.53
13.23

12.47
12.57
12.21
13.23

12.66
12.83
12.22
13.42

Benefits, such as housing and meals, are provided to some workers but the values are not included in the wage rates.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

5

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: October 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

45
45

32
37

13
8

44.2
40.4

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

39
30

27
21

12
9

39.6
39.1

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

38
30

29
27

9
3

38.5
40.8

Lake .......................................

55

36

19

38.1

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

47
29

32
17

15
12

37.1
35.8

Delta ......................................

38

23

15

46.1

Northern Plains ......................

40

32

8

45.8

Southern Plains ......................

56

39

17

37.4

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

36
27
20

28
23
18

8
4
2

44.3
44.2
45.3

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

93
166

54
138

39
28

43.2
43.8

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

37.2

United States .........................

840

618

222

41.6

1

6

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: October 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

13.49
12.91

12.33
11.01

13.05
12.30

13.82
13.08

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

11.61
11.23

11.04
10.91

11.50
11.10

11.96
11.84

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

11.04
11.30

11.55
11.80

11.15
11.39

11.73
13.00

Lake .................................

13.87

13.55

13.75

14.45

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

12.95
13.83

12.64
12.95

12.85
13.55

13.42
14.04

Delta .................................

10.49

11.07

10.60

11.02

Northern Plains .................

14.93

12.76

14.00

14.53

Southern Plains ................

11.59

11.87

11.75

12.32

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

11.50
10.17
10.28

11.19
10.91
10.33

11.35
10.45
10.30

12.00
11.25
10.97

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

14.76
13.25

14.13
14.10

14.70
13.37

15.08
14.59

Hawaii ..............................

14.20

16.65

14.51

16.22

United States ....................

12.83

12.22

12.66

13.42

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

7

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: July 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

44
52

33
36

11
16

41.9
42.2

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

42
28

26
20

16
8

39.9
38.1

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

39
27

29
23

10
4

39.4
39.1

Lake .......................................

62

37

25

34.4

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

44
23

32
16

12
7

34.3
37.4

Delta ......................................

34

21

13

43.9

Northern Plains ......................

36

30

6

44.4

Southern Plains ......................

59

41

18

36.8

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

38
30
19

29
23
16

9
7
3

46.5
46.0
44.6

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

118
178

64
150

54
28

43.6
44.1

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

36.8

United States .........................

879

631

248

41.4

1

8

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: July 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

12.77
12.20

12.35
11.02

12.60
11.85

13.49
12.47

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

11.19
11.14

10.99
10.91

11.15
11.05

11.59
11.87

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

10.78
11.40

11.26
12.25

10.90
11.58

11.47
13.38

Lake .................................

12.47

13.28

12.80

13.63

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

12.59
13.49

13.05
13.26

12.75
13.40

13.40
13.98

Delta .................................

10.43

11.21

10.60

11.09

Northern Plains .................

13.83

12.89

13.40

13.94

Southern Plains ................

11.58

11.61

11.60

12.16

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

11.18
9.79
10.08

11.22
10.74
9.84

11.20
10.15
10.00

11.74
10.90
10.80

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

14.39
13.25

13.83
14.20

14.35
13.39

14.69
14.58

Hawaii ..............................

14.45

16.90

14.76

16.46

United States ....................

12.57

12.21

12.47

13.23

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

9

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: April 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

32
40

28
33

4
7

39.5
38.3

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

24
24

20
17

4
7

41.3
36.7

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

38
45

31
36

7
9

41.1
39.1

Lake .......................................

46

35

11

38.7

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

36
18

26
14

10
4

36.0
37.2

Delta ......................................

30

21

9

44.9

Northern Plains ......................

32

27

5

40.2

Southern Plains ......................

45

32

13

34.0

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

27
14
17

21
12
15

6
2
2

43.3
45.3
42.5

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

53
146

39
124

14
22

41.4
43.3

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

36.1

United States .........................

673

536

137

40.4

1

Region map on page 26.

10

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: April 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

13.43
12.09

12.02
11.85

12.90
12.00

13.96
12.98

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

11.69
11.49

11.71
11.40

11.70
11.45

12.53
12.17

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

10.55
11.10

11.21
12.45

10.75
11.20

11.33
12.31

Lake .................................

12.58

12.83

12.70

13.35

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

13.17
12.60

13.25
13.95

13.20
13.15

14.04
13.41

Delta .................................

10.73

11.03

10.80

11.10

Northern Plains .................

14.81

12.47

13.55

14.02

Southern Plains ................

11.54

12.87

12.20

12.95

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

11.60
11.48
10.62

12.59
11.62
11.04

12.05
11.55
10.75

12.74
12.29
11.44

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

12.87
12.80

14.37
13.55

13.05
12.96

13.89
14.29

Hawaii ..............................

14.00

16.90

14.24

16.65

United States ....................

12.22

12.53

12.32

13.23

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

11

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: January 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

20
31

18
25

2
6

42.3
33.8

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

18
19

16
13

2
6

37.7
32.9

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

31
45

28
34

3
11

37.9
39.4

Lake .......................................

36

31

5

39.0

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

29
15

22
12

7
3

36.6
35.3

Delta ......................................

17

14

3

37.4

Northern Plains ......................

27

24

3

38.4

Southern Plains ......................

36

29

7

33.5

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

15
11
17

14
10
14

1
1
3

43.9
44.4
41.4

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

35
125

31
110

4
15

37.0
39.2

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

36.1

United States .........................

533

450

83

38.0

1

Region map on page 26.

12

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: January 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

13.80
12.53

11.65
11.66

12.70
12.10

13.95
13.39

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

12.19
10.86

11.35
11.63

11.85
11.25

13.01
12.26

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

11.03
11.05

11.08
12.35

11.05
11.15

11.70
12.17

Lake .................................

12.98

12.78

12.85

13.60

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

12.76
13.08

13.29
13.92

13.00
13.55

13.92
13.82

Delta .................................

11.30

11.16

11.25

11.72

Northern Plains .................

14.76

12.77

13.50

14.13

Southern Plains ................

11.31

12.93

12.20

13.02

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

12.00
11.49
10.85

12.97
11.91
10.99

12.75
11.75
10.90

13.75
12.55
11.72

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

12.69
12.45

14.69
13.95

13.05
12.82

14.36
14.32

Hawaii ..............................

13.65

16.60

13.89

16.32

United States ....................

12.15

12.66

12.35

13.43

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

13

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: October 9-15, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

41
53

31
36

10
17

40.5
38.2

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

47
28

29
17

18
11

37.4
36.5

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

36
33

24
30

12
3

38.3
41.4

Lake .......................................

59

40

19

42.1

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

42
35

29
21

13
14

41.9
38.4

Delta ......................................

32

21

11

47.5

Northern Plains ......................

34

26

8

44.8

Southern Plains ......................

51

34

17

37.6

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

27
20
21

19
16
18

8
4
3

44.5
43.1
48.6

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

68
165

46
136

22
29

41.3
44.2

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

36.9

United States .........................

798

578

220

41.6

1

Region map on page 26.

14

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: October 9-15, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

13.64
12.36

11.80
12.48

13.00
12.40

13.99
13.26

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

11.38
10.45

12.36
11.35

11.60
10.75

12.24
11.31

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

10.57
11.00

11.44
12.50

10.80
11.20

11.29
12.48

Lake .................................

14.82

12.78

14.10

14.67

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

13.85
13.33

12.72
12.84

13.50
13.15

13.87
13.64

Delta .................................

10.40

10.42

10.40

10.68

Northern Plains .................

15.33

12.50

14.15

14.56

Southern Plains ................

11.33

12.06

11.70

12.19

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

12.01
10.84
10.22

10.94
10.31
10.13

11.50
10.55
10.20

12.12
11.03
11.13

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

14.48
12.65

14.20
13.50

14.45
12.79

14.94
13.95

Hawaii ..............................

12.80

16.65

13.20

14.86

United States ....................

12.59

12.25

12.50

13.25

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

15

Number of Workers and Hours Worked – Region and United States: July 10-16, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired
Region 1

Expected to be employed

Number
of
workers

150 days
or more

149 days
or less

Number
of hours
worked

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .............................
Northeast II ............................

42
59

33
38

9
21

41.0
39.6

Appalachian I .........................
Appalachian II ........................

49
24

29
16

20
8

41.8
37.4

Southeast ..............................
Florida ....................................

34
30

25
27

9
3

37.6
41.4

Lake .......................................

58

40

18

38.5

Cornbelt I ...............................
Cornbelt II ..............................

40
27

29
22

11
5

37.9
37.2

Delta ......................................

34

22

12

41.2

Northern Plains ......................

34

26

8

44.0

Southern Plains ......................

52

35

17

38.2

Mountain I ..............................
Mountain II .............................
Mountain III ............................

28
23
20

21
17
17

7
6
3

43.8
43.6
45.6

Pacific ....................................
California ...............................

100
180

52
152

48
28

42.1
43.7

Hawaii ....................................

6

5

1

37.5

United States .........................

840

606

234

41.2

1

Region map on page 26.

16

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Region and United States: July 10-16, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Region 1

Field

Livestock

Field and livestock
combined

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Wage rates for
all hired workers
(dollars per hour)

Northeast I ........................
Northeast II .......................

13.27
11.81

11.87
12.41

12.75
12.00

13.85
12.77

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

11.21
10.57

11.43
10.98

11.25
10.70

11.77
11.22

Southeast .........................
Florida ..............................

10.50
10.85

11.00
12.30

10.65
11.08

11.22
12.41

Lake .................................

12.87

12.23

12.60

13.24

Cornbelt I ..........................
Cornbelt II .........................

13.12
13.05

12.52
13.27

12.90
13.15

13.54
13.72

Delta .................................

10.26

10.48

10.30

10.60

Northern Plains .................

15.17

12.83

14.10

14.49

Southern Plains ................

11.47

11.74

11.60

12.10

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

11.96
10.93
10.41

11.33
10.48
10.36

11.65
10.70
10.40

12.16
11.09
11.42

Pacific ...............................
California ..........................

13.71
12.60

13.58
13.55

13.70
12.76

14.07
13.95

Hawaii ..............................

12.85

16.90

13.27

14.88

United States ....................

12.32

12.15

12.27

13.02

1

Region map on page 26.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

17

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region
and 48 States: October 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Region 1

Field
crops

Other
crops

Livestock
and poultry

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

2

Northeast ..........................................................
Appalachian 3 ......................................................
Southeast and Florida .........................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ............................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ...................................................
Southern Plains ...................................................
Mountain 5 ...........................................................
Pacific and California ..........................................

13.85
11.31
10.63
15.51
14.46
10.32
15.12
11.24
9.22
14.48

13.19
11.96
11.23
13.67
11.20
10.73
14.19
11.33
10.46
13.79

11.79
10.83
11.84
13.20
12.67
11.10
12.53
12.04
11.30
14.24

12.69
11.33
11.26
13.75
13.11
10.60
14.00
11.75
10.81
13.86

48 States 6 ..........................................................

12.76

12.89

12.18

12.65

1

Region map on page 26.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii
2
3

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region
and 48 States: July 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Region 1

Field
crops

Other
crops

(dollars per hour)

Livestock
and poultry

(dollars per hour)

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Northeast 2 ..........................................................
Appalachian 3 ......................................................
Southeast and Florida .........................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ............................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ...................................................
Southern Plains ...................................................
Mountain 5 ...........................................................
Pacific and California ..........................................

13.73
11.06
10.04
14.57
14.22
10.42
14.20
10.90
9.42
14.29

12.35
11.43
11.20
12.37
11.40
10.40
12.80
11.70
10.21
13.71

11.73
10.86
11.77
12.96
13.01
11.20
12.78
11.70
11.11
14.14

12.19
11.11
11.16
12.80
12.99
10.60
13.40
11.60
10.59
13.78

48 States 6 ..........................................................

12.16

12.73

12.11

12.46

1

Region map on page 26.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2

18

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region
and 48 States: October 9-15, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Region 1

Field
crops

Other
crops

Livestock
and poultry

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

2

Northeast ...........................................................
Appalachian 3 ......................................................
Southeast and Florida ..........................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 .............................................................
Delta ....................................................................
Northern Plains ....................................................
Southern Plains ...................................................
Mountain 5 ...........................................................
Pacific and California ...........................................

12.60
10.79
11.66
17.96
14.22
10.15
16.25
11.29
11.64
14.78

12.99
11.39
10.65
12.70
12.21
10.97
14.05
12.01
10.98
13.13

12.23
11.98
12.00
11.89
12.61
10.26
12.23
11.65
10.49
13.73

12.67
11.29
10.99
14.10
13.34
10.40
14.15
11.70
10.82
13.27

48 States 6 ...........................................................

13.33

12.35

12.20

12.49

1

Region map on page 26.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2
3

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Region
and 48 States: July 10-16, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Region 1

Field
crops

Other
crops

(dollars per hour)

Livestock
and poultry

(dollars per hour)

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Northeast 2 ...........................................................
Appalachian 3 ......................................................
Southeast and Florida ..........................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 .............................................................
Delta ....................................................................
Northern Plains ....................................................
Southern Plains ...................................................
Mountain 5 ...........................................................
Pacific and California ...........................................

12.85
10.81
10.50
14.69
14.46
10.16
16.27
11.51
11.63
13.62

12.33
11.04
10.51
11.82
11.95
10.45
13.56
11.89
11.16
13.02

12.22
11.60
12.06
12.24
12.48
10.53
12.81
11.37
10.68
13.52

12.31
11.08
10.86
12.60
13.00
10.30
14.10
11.60
11.00
13.11

48 States 6 ...........................................................

12.44

12.26

12.21

12.27

1

Region map on page 26.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
2

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

19

All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region
and 48 States: October 8-14, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Northeast 2 ......................................................
Appalachian 3 ..................................................
Southeast and Florida .....................................
Lake ................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ........................................................
Delta ...............................................................
Northern Plains ...............................................
Southern Plains ...............................................
Mountain 5 .......................................................
Pacific and California ......................................

14.50
10.64
9.80
10.79
11.17
9.20
(S)
11.73
10.96
16.35

10.74
11.13
(S)
12.66
12.86
12.00
11.31
11.09
11.71
14.98

13.36
11.66
12.68
11.12
12.90
10.85
(S)
13.28
10.54
14.78

12.34
10.93
12.18
13.47
12.23
10.65
12.89
12.59
12.14
14.55

12.10
11.32
12.33
15.63
14.35
10.86
12.75
11.75
10.43
15.01

14.13
12.94
12.35
14.68
14.13
11.19
15.30
13.12
11.77
14.68

13.47
11.91
12.31
14.45
13.65
11.02
14.53
12.32
11.51
14.76

48 States 6 ......................................................

12.27

12.31

12.85

12.57

13.36

13.80

13.41

Region 1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 26.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region
and 48 States: July 9-15, 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

Northeast 2 ......................................................
Appalachian 3 ..................................................
Southeast and Florida .....................................
Lake ................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ........................................................
Delta ...............................................................
Northern Plains ...............................................
Southern Plains ...............................................
Mountain 5 .......................................................
Pacific and California ......................................

(dollars per
hour)
13.31
10.97
9.64
11.37
11.92
9.20
(S)
11.81
10.43
14.34

(dollars per
hour)
10.85
10.62
13.32
(S)
12.38
12.03
11.32
10.37
10.21
15.00

(dollars per
hour)
12.29
11.18
12.69
10.80
13.23
10.19
13.89
12.20
10.05
14.81

(dollars per
hour)
12.78
10.89
12.71
12.58
11.90
10.34
12.44
12.38
12.49
14.25

(dollars per
hour)
12.05
11.28
12.43
14.56
13.54
10.90
11.53
11.95
10.42
13.96

(dollars per
hour)
13.52
12.48
12.22
13.95
14.36
11.52
15.06
13.25
11.62
14.72

(dollars per
hour)
12.94
11.70
12.25
13.63
13.61
11.09
13.94
12.16
11.25
14.62

48 States 6 ......................................................

11.74

12.33

12.43

12.64

12.62

13.76

13.22

Region 1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 26.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

20

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region
and 48 States: October 9-15, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Northeast 2 ......................................................
Appalachian 3 .................................................
Southeast and Florida .....................................
Lake ...............................................................
Cornbelt 4 ........................................................
Delta ...............................................................
Northern Plains ...............................................
Southern Plains ..............................................
Mountain 5 ......................................................
Pacific and California ......................................

(S)
12.78
11.39
9.89
13.84
10.44
11.78
12.26
(S)
15.11

11.44
10.36
11.50
11.13
11.13
10.54
13.03
10.82
(S)
13.98

11.24
10.88
9.70
10.26
13.17
9.47
12.09
10.64
(S)
15.00

11.75
12.31
12.51
10.93
13.79
9.73
12.76
12.16
10.44
13.92

13.23
11.38
11.56
14.85
13.40
9.95
14.06
11.74
11.33
14.56

14.49
12.22
12.32
15.76
14.07
11.08
15.67
12.59
11.90
14.15

13.59
11.90
11.88
14.67
13.77
10.68
14.56
12.19
11.49
14.23

48 States 6 ......................................................

12.60

11.86

11.86

12.38

13.12

13.66

13.23

Region 1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 26.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

All Hired Worker Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Region
and 48 States: July 10-16, 2016
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

Northeast 2 ......................................................
Appalachian 3 .................................................
Southeast and Florida .....................................
Lake ...............................................................
Cornbelt 4 ........................................................
Delta ...............................................................
Northern Plains ...............................................
Southern Plains ..............................................
Mountain 5 ......................................................
Pacific and California ......................................

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
12.31
9.61
10.61
13.46
10.03
(S)
11.37
(S)
13.87

(dollars per
hour)
10.89
10.45
11.17
11.71
11.55
10.36
13.39
11.31
(S)
14.18

(dollars per
hour)
10.62
10.85
9.94
10.63
12.61
10.16
14.93
14.54
(S)
14.52

(dollars per
hour)
11.50
11.67
13.08
10.27
13.66
10.35
12.59
11.60
11.12
14.10

(dollars per
hour)
12.28
11.59
11.65
15.57
14.13
9.84
13.86
11.36
11.48
13.70

(dollars per
hour)
14.08
11.79
12.37
13.60
13.73
11.03
15.56
12.06
12.13
13.96

(dollars per
hour)
13.23
11.60
11.81
13.24
13.61
10.60
14.49
12.10
11.60
13.99

48 States 6 ......................................................

11.78

12.11

12.45

12.49

12.90

13.38

13.02

Region 1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 26.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

21

Field and Livestock Workers by Type of Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers, Alaska and Hawaii]
Type of farm

July 10-16,
2016

October 9-15,
2016

January 8-14,
2017

April 9-15,
2017

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

Field crops .................................
Other crops ................................
Livestock, dairy, and poultry .......

15
55
30

17
51
32

12
50
38

13
54
33

14
55
31

16
53
31

Hired Workers by Economic Class of Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers, Alaska and Hawaii]
Gross value of sales

July 10-16,
2016

October 9-15,
2016

January 8-14,
2017

April 9-15,
2017

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

Less than $50,000 .....................
$50,000-$99,999 ........................
$100,000-$249,999 ....................
$250,000-$499,999 ....................
$500,000-$999,999 ....................
$1,000,000 and over ..................

9
4
8
10
12
57

8
5
7
10
13
57

7
4
8
9
11
61

7
5
7
9
13
59

8
6
10
9
12
55

7
5
8
9
14
57

Hired Workers by Number of Workers on Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Number of workers on farm

July 10-16,
2016
(percent)

1 worker .................................
2 workers ...............................
3-6 workers ............................
7-10 workers ..........................
11-20 workers ........................
21-50 workers ........................
51 or more workers ................

22

10
7
16
9
10
15
33

October 9-15,
2016

January 8-14,
2017

April 9-15,
2017

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

10
8
17
8
13
14
30

11
10
17
8
10
15
29

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(percent)
10
10
17
7
11
15
30

(percent)
8
9
17
9
11
13
33

9
10
17
8
11
12
33

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Hired Workers by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Title

SOC code

July 10-16,
2016

October 9-15,
2016

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

Graders and sorters, agricultural products .................................
Agricultural equipment operators ...............................................
Farmworkers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse ............................
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals .................
Agricultural workers, all other .....................................................
Packers and packagers, hand ....................................................

(45-2041)
(45-2091)
(45-2092)
(45-2093)
(45-2099)
(53-7064)

10
146
386
179
14
20

10
170
319
179
16
19

12
164
402
176
14
20

14
177
352
179
15
16

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers ..................
First-line supervisors of farming, fishing workers ........................

(11-9013)
(45-1011)

22
18

21
19

27
21

26
20

Wages by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Title

SOC code

July 10-16,
2016

October 9-15,
2016

July 9-15,
2017

October 8-14,
2017

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Graders and sorters, agricultural products .................................
Agricultural equipment operators ...............................................
Farmworkers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse ............................
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals .................
Agricultural workers, all other .....................................................
Packers and packagers, hand ....................................................

(45-2041)
(45-2091)
(45-2092)
(45-2093)
(45-2099)
(53-7064)

11.00
12.75
12.30
12.00
13.05
11.00

11.50
13.10
12.40
12.10
13.95
11.00

12.10
12.70
12.60
12.15
13.30
11.45

12.55
13.25
12.65
12.15
13.30
11.25

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers ..................
First-line supervisors of farming, fishing workers ........................

(11-9013)
(45-1011)

23.45
19.20

22.60
19.40

22.55
19.90

22.50
20.10

Farm Labor (November 2017)
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23

Annual Average Number of Hired Workers and Hours Worked - Region and United States:
2016 and 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
United States
and region 1

Hired workers

Hours worked

2016

2017

2016

2017

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I ......................................
Northeast II .....................................

35.3
43.5

35.3
42.0

42.1
38.6

42.1
39.2

Appalachian I ..................................
Appalachian II .................................

35.0
21.8

30.8
25.3

38.6
36.6

39.8
37.1

Southeast .......................................

30.0

36.5

37.8

39.3

Florida .............................................

35.8

36.8

40.3

39.5

Lake ................................................

55.5

49.8

38.1

37.2

Cornbelt I ........................................
Cornbelt II .......................................

40.0
25.8

39.0
21.3

38.8
37.5

36.0
36.4

Delta ...............................................

28.3

29.8

41.1

43.9

Northern Plains ...............................
Southern Plains ...............................

33.0
51.8

33.8
49.0

43.1
36.4

42.6
35.7

Mountain I .......................................
Mountain II ......................................
Mountain III .....................................

25.0
17.0
21.0

29.0
20.5
18.3

44.6
42.4
47.1

44.7
45.1
43.6

Pacific .............................................

68.8

74.8

41.0

42.3

California ........................................

157.5

153.8

43.3

42.8

Hawaii .............................................

6.0

6.0

36.4

36.6

United States 2 ................................

730.8

731.3

40.6

40.6

1
2

Region map on page 26.
Excludes Alaska.

24

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Annual Average Wage Rates - Region and United States: 2016 and 2017
[Excludes agricultural service workers. Annual rates are averages of the published wage rates for each survey week weighted by the number of hours
worked during the week]
United States
and region 1

All hired
2016

Field

2017

2016

Field and livestock
2017

(dollars per (dollars per (dollars per (dollars per
hour)
hour)
hour)
hour)

2016

2017

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Northeast I ...................................................................................
(CT, ME, MA, NH, NY, RI, VT)

13.29

13.77

13.00

13.28

12.38

12.83

Northeast II ..................................................................................
(DE, MD, NJ, PA)

13.06

12.90

12.11

12.43

12.19

12.05

Appalachian I ...............................................................................
(NC, VA)

11.86

12.09

11.24

11.52

11.27

11.46

Appalachian II ..............................................................................
(KY, TN, WV)

11.49

12.00

10.73

11.21

10.92

11.19

Southeast ....................................................................................
(AL, GA, SC)
Florida .........................................................................................

11.16

11.55

10.61

10.84

10.62

10.95

12.21

12.61

10.85

11.17

11.12

11.29

Lake ............................................................................................
(MI, MN, WI)

13.30

13.79

13.17

13.02

12.75

13.06

Cornbelt I .....................................................................................
(IL, IN, OH)

13.52

13.65

13.03

12.87

13.01

12.93

Cornbelt II ....................................................................................
(IA, MO)

13.49

13.85

13.16

13.38

13.12

13.42

Delta ............................................................................................
(AR, LA, MS)

10.68

11.15

10.38

10.62

10.38

10.73

Northern Plains ............................................................................
(KS, NE, ND, SD)

14.27

14.18

14.88

14.55

13.79

13.64

Southern Plains ...........................................................................
(OK, TX)

12.03

12.53

11.41

11.53

11.59

11.87

Mountain I ....................................................................................
(ID, MT, WY)

12.19

12.30

12.13

11.42

11.66

11.63

Mountain II ...................................................................................
(CO, NV, UT)

11.77

11.47

11.07

10.31

11.00

10.69

Mountain III ..................................................................................
(AZ, NM)

12.11

11.20

10.83

10.44

10.95

10.46

Pacific ..........................................................................................
(OR, WA)

13.90

14.64

13.36

14.12

13.38

14.12

California .....................................................................................
Hawaii .........................................................................................

13.81
14.91

14.46
16.41

12.44
12.83

13.01
14.08

12.57
13.14

13.18
14.37

United States 2 .............................................................................

12.98

13.32

12.25

12.51

12.20

12.47

1
2

Region map on page 26.
Excludes Alaska.

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25

Farm Labor Regions
Pacific

Mountain I
Lake
States

Northern
Plains
Cornbelt
II

Mountain
II

Northeast I
Northeast
II
Cornbelt I

Appalachian
I

California
Appalachian
II
Mountain III
Southeast

Delta
Southern
Plains

Florida

Hawaii

USDA/ NASS

Region

States

Northeast I

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
New York, Rhode Island, Vermont.
Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.
North Carolina, Virginia.
Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia.
Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina.
Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin.
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio.
Iowa, Missouri.
Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi.
Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.
Oklahoma, Texas.
Idaho, Montana, Wyoming.
Colorado, Nevada, Utah.
Arizona, New Mexico.
Oregon, Washington.

Northeast II
Appalachian I
Appalachian II
Southeast
Lake
Cornbelt I
Cornbelt II
Delta
Northern Plains
Southern Plains
Mountain I
Mountain II
Mountain III
Pacific

26

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Farm Labor Definitions
The following definitions are provided to assist in interpreting statistics published in Farm Labor reports. To ensure
consistency in data collection, the questionnaires and instruction manual used by the interviewers provide more in-depth
explanations of these terms.
Farm or Ranch: A place that sells, or would normally sell, at least $1,000 worth of agricultural products during the year.
Agricultural Work: Work done on a farm or ranch in connection with the production of agricultural products, including
nursery and greenhouse products and animal specialties such as fur farms or apiaries. Also included is work done off the
farm to handle farm related business, such as trips to buy feed or deliver products to local market.
Hired Worker: Anyone, other than an agricultural service worker, who was paid for at least one hour of agricultural
work on a farm or ranch. Worker type is determined by what the employee was primarily hired to do, not necessarily what
work was done during the survey week. Types of workers include:
Field Workers: Employees engaged in planting, tending and harvesting crops including
operation of farm machinery on crop farms. The Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) codes and titles
associated with field workers are 45-2041: Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products; 45-2091: Agricultural
Equipment Operators; 45-2092: Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery and Greenhouse; 45-2099:
Agricultural Workers, All Other; 53-7064: Packers and Packagers, Hand.
Livestock Workers: Employees tending livestock, milking cows or caring for poultry,
including operation of farm machinery on livestock or poultry operations. SOC codes and titles associated with
livestock workers are 45-2041: Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products; 45-2093: Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch,
and Aquacultural Animals; 45-2099: Agricultural Workers, All Other; 53-7064: Packers and Packagers, Hand.
Supervisors: Hired managers, range foremen, crew leaders, etc. SOC codes and titles associated with supervisors
are 11-9013: Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers; 45-1011: First-Line Supervisors of Farming,
Fishing, and Forestry Workers.
Other Workers: Employees engaged in agricultural work not included in the other three categories. Bookkeepers
and pilots are examples. SOC codes and titles associated with other workers include but are not limited to 45-2011:
Agricultural Inspectors; 45-2021: Animal Breeders; 37-2012: Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators,
Vegetation.
For more information on the applicable Standard Occupational Classification codes, see “Crosswalk from National
Agricultural Statistics Service Farm Labor Survey to the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification System” at the
“Surveys and Programs” page for Farm Labor, on the NASS website (http://www.nass.usda.gov).
Methods of Pay: All wage rates are calculated based on total wages paid and total hours worked during the survey
reference week. Wages paid other than hourly (bi-weekly, monthly, etc.) are converted to an hourly basis prior to
summarization. Wages paid by piece rate (per quantity of produce picked, etc.) are also converted to an hourly basis.
Perquisites: Benefits, such as cash bonuses, housing, or meals, provided to an employee in addition to pay are included in
perquisites. Wage rates published in this release do not include the value of these benefits.
Term of Employment: The length of time during the year the farm operator expects to employ those workers who were
on the payroll during the survey week.
Agricultural Service: Any farm-related service performed on a farm or ranch on a contract or fee basis. This primarily
includes activities performed by contract workers on fruit, vegetable, or berry operations. It also includes custom work,
veterinarian work, artificial insemination, sheep shearing, milk testing, or any other farm-related activity performed on a

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farm or ranch on a “fee per service” basis. The agricultural services component has been discontinued from the Farm
Labor Survey.
Contract Labor: Contract workers are paid by a crew leader, contractor, buyer, processor, cooperative, or other person
who has an oral or written agreement with a farmer/rancher. Pruning, thinning, weeding or harvesting of fruit, vegetable
or berry crops are examples. A machine is not a part of the service activity provided by the contractor. The Farm Labor
Survey excludes measures of contract labor.
Custom Work: Work performed by machines and labor hired as a unit. Hay baling, combining, corn or cotton picking,
spraying, fertilizing, and laser leveling are examples of custom work when the equipment is included in the service
activity. The Farm Labor Survey excludes measures of custom labor.
Type of Farm (or Ranch): An operation is classified in the farm type which accounts for the largest portion of the total
gross value of sales for its agricultural production.
Types of farms broken out in this publication are:
Field Crops: A farm producing wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, barley, dry beans, rye, sorghum, cotton, popcorn,
tobacco, or other such crops.
Other Crops: A farm producing vegetables, melons, berry crops, grapes, tree nuts, citrus fruits, deciduous tree
fruits, avocados, dates, figs, olives, nursery, or greenhouse crops. This category also includes farms producing
potatoes, sugar crops, hay, peanuts, hops, mint, and maple syrup.
Livestock or Poultry: A farm producing cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, milk, chickens, eggs, turkeys, or animal
specialties such as furs, fish, honey, etc.
Gross Value of Sales: This includes all income during a year from the sale of crops, livestock, dairy, poultry, or other
related agricultural products, including the landlord's share and the value of products produced under contract. When
commodities are placed under CCC loan, they are considered sold.

28

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Survey Methodology
Survey Procedures: The NASS Farm Labor Survey is conducted semi-annually in April and October, in all surveyed
states except California. During the April data collection, data for both January and April reference weeks are collected.
During the October data collection, data for both July and October reference weeks are collected. The quarterly reference
week is the Sunday to Saturday period which includes the 12th day of the month. For California, collection of these data is
currently conducted on a quarterly basis, as part of the California Employment Development Department monthly labor
program.
The target population for the Farm Labor Survey program is all farms and ranches with $1,000 or more in agricultural
sales (or potential sales). An optimal sample is selected in each state with a U.S. sample size of about 14,000.
The Farm Labor Survey is a multiple frame survey, incorporating samples from both the NASS list and area frames to
ensure adequate coverage.
Farms on the list frame are sampled through a hierarchical stratified design, with strata based on measures of size. Those
operations with associated control data indicating peak numbers of workers are stratified based on these values, and those
expected to employ large numbers of workers (higher peak number values) are selected with the greatest frequency.
Farms on the list frame which do not have peak worker control data are stratified and sampled based on farm value of
sales. Farms stratified by farm value of sales are selected at a lower frequency.
In order to provide coverage of farms not currently part of the NASS list frame, a second sample is drawn consisting of
segments of land selected from the NASS area frame. The area frame contains all land in the state and, as such, is
complete. The land is stratified according to intensity of agriculture using satellite imagery. The land in each stratum is
divided into segments of roughly one square mile. Segments are optimally allocated and sampled to effectively measure
crops and livestock. The sampled segments are fully enumerated in June. All farms and ranches found operating tracts in
these segments are checked to see if they are included in the list frame hired labor population. The farms and ranches that
are not included in the list frame labor population, called nonoverlap tracts, are sampled for the Farm Labor Survey so that
the target population is completely represented. The area frame component is enumerated during each semi-annual data
collection period along with the list sample.
Most respondents are first contacted through self-administered mailed questionnaires, which can be completed either by
hand or securely online. All manually completed survey questionnaires are returned to the NASS National Operations
Center, where they are visually reviewed and key entered. Nonresponse follow-up is completed either by computerassisted telephone interviews conducted from NASS Data Collection Centers, or in person by an enumerator.
Throughout the data collection process, steps are taken to minimize the impact of nonsampling errors such as reporting,
recording, and editing errors. These steps include questionnaire testing, comprehensive interviewer training, validation,
and verification of processing systems, application of detailed computer edits, and evaluation of the data via the analysis
tools.
Nonresponse adjustment is necessary to account for producers who refuse to participate in the survey, cannot be located
during the data collection period, or who submit incomplete reports. These nonrespondents must be accounted for if
accurate estimates of farm labor are to be made. For the Farm Labor Survey, nonrespondents are accounted for by
adjusting the weights of the respondents. The adjustment occurs by stratum as all strata represent homogeneous
groupings of similar sized farms. The adjustment is performed by individual item on the questionnaire so adjustments for
item nonresponse (partial reports) and unit nonresponse (refusals and inaccessibles) are done in a single calculation.
For estimation of data items, point estimates called direct expansions are calculated by multiplying the reported value by
the final adjusted weight (initial sampling weight adjusted for nonresponse) and summing to a stratum total. A variance
estimate is also computed at the stratum level. The nonoverlap tracts are treated as an additional stratum. Totals and
variances are additive across strata to form state level point estimates.

Farm Labor (November 2017)
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29

Ratio estimates are also computed for many items. For example, wage rates are calculated as the ratio of total wages to
total hours worked. Ratio estimates use the reweighted estimator described above for the numerator and denominator
direct expansions. Both the numerator and denominator must be usable in order for that record to be used in the ratio
estimator.
The number of hired workers, average hours worked, average wage rate data, and all associated sub-items are summarized
from the dataset. Because an identical data collection instrument (questionnaire) and follow-up interview are used for all
states, as well as identical editing, analysis, and summarization processes, state data can be summarized and regional and
national survey point estimates computed. For estimation purposes, point estimates are adopted as survey indications for
all data items. The summary results provide multiple direct and ratio indications for each data series being estimated.
The results also provide information used to assess the performance of the current survey and evaluate the quality of the
survey indications. NASS Regional Field Offices interpret the survey indications and submit state level recommendations
for all member states to NASS headquarters, providing justification in cases where recommendations deviate from
summary indications, as well other state specific comments and justifications. NASS headquarters completes the regional
and U.S. level summaries, which utilize the same estimators and produce the same indications as the state level
summaries.
For the final step in the estimation process, NASS assembles a panel of statisticians to serve as the Agricultural Statistics
Board (ASB) for the Farm Labor Survey. The Farm Labor ASB reviews the U.S. level, regional, and state level survey
indications and establishes all final, official estimates for the Farm Labor Survey program. Since larger sample sizes yield
more precise results, the ASB employs the “top-down” approach by determining the U.S. level estimates first and
reconciling the state recommendations to the U.S. and regional numbers for all estimates including number of hired
workers, average hours worked, average wage rates, and associated sub-items. As part of the semi-annual process, the
ASB also considers revised recommendations and issues revisions of previously published estimates where appropriate.
Additionally, the ASB reviews the annual average estimates for the November publication, which are summarized from
the final regional and U.S. level estimates for each of the four quarters. Through examining indications across states and
regions, re-examining outliers, and considering state level recommendations and comments, the ASB is able to establish
all final estimates according to both local conditions and regional and national conditions and trends.
Revision Policy: Farm labor statistics are subject to revision semi-annually and annually. Revisions must be supported by
additional data that directly affect the level of the estimate. Worker numbers and wage rates for July and October 2016,
and April 2017, were subject to revision with this report.

For More Information
For more information on the Farm Labor Survey methodology and quality measures, see “Farm Labor Survey
Methodology and Quality Measures” on the NASS website (http://www.nass.usda.gov).

30

Farm Labor (November 2017)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Information Contacts
Listed below are the commodity statisticians in the Environmental, Economics and Demographics Branch of the National
Agricultural Statistics Service to contact for additional information. Email inquiries may be sent to [email protected]
Jody McDaniel, Chief, Environmental, Economics and Demographics Branch ............................................. (202) 720-6146
Tony Dorn, Head, Economics Section ............................................................................................................. (202) 690-3223
Rachel Antzak – Cash Receipts, Land Values .......................................................................................... (202) 720-5446
Daryl Brinkman – Prices Received, Prices Received Indexes, Parity Prices ............................................ (202) 720-8844
Kuan Chen – Prices, Prices Research ........................................................................................................ (202) 690-3347
Ryan Cowen – Farms, Land in Farms, Cash Rents, Grazing Fees ............................................................ (202) 690-2250
Liana Cuffman – Prices Paid, Prices Paid Indexes .................................................................................... (202) 690-3229
Stephen Habets – Farm Expenditures........................................................................................................ (202) 720-9168
Ben Johnson – Database and Application Development ........................................................................... (202) 690-3225
Michael Mathison – Farm Expenditures ................................................................................................... (202) 720-3243
Theresa Varner – Farm Labor ................................................................................................................... (202) 690-3231

Scott Shimmin, Head, Environmental and Demographics Section .................................................................. (202) 720-0684
Stephanie Brennan – Field Crops Chemical Use, Census of Agriculture ................................................ (202) 690-0392
Natasha Bruton – Current Agricultural Industrial Reports ........................................................................ (202) 720-7644
David Colwell – Current Agricultural Industrial Reports ......................................................................... (202) 690-3226
Doug Farmer – Vegetable Chemical Use .................................................................................................. (202) 720-7492
Joe Hagedorn – Census of Agriculture ...................................................................................................... (202) 690-2284
Virginia Harris – Census of Agriculture.................................................................................................... (502) 582-5257
Dominique Sims – Census of Agriculture ................................................................................................. (202) 690-4752

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USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

31

Access to NASS Reports
For your convenience, you may access NASS reports and products the following ways:
 All reports are available electronically, at no cost, on the NASS web site: www.nass.usda.gov
 Both national and state specific reports are available via a free e-mail subscription. To set-up this free
subscription, visit www.nass.usda.gov and click on “National” or “State” in upper right corner above “search”
box to create an account and select the reports you would like to receive.
For more information on NASS surveys and reports, call the NASS Agricultural Statistics Hotline at (800) 727-9540,
7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. ET, or e-mail: [email protected]

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination against its customers, employees, and applicants for
employment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, sex, gender identity, religion, reprisal, and where
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income is derived from any public assistance program, or protected genetic information in employment or in any program
or activity conducted or funded by the Department. (Not all prohibited bases will apply to all programs and/or
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If you wish to file a Civil Rights program complaint of discrimination, complete the USDA Program Discrimination
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call (866) 632-9992 to request the form. You may also write a letter containing all of the information requested in the
form. Send your completed complaint form or letter to us by mail at U.S. Department of Agriculture, Director, Office of
Adjudication, 1400 Independence Avenue, S.W., Washington, D.C. 20250-9410, by fax (202) 690-7442 or email at
[email protected]


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