Farm Labor Publication

0109 - Farm Labor - 02-11-2021.pdf

Agricultural Labor

Farm Labor Publication

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Farm Labor
ISSN: 1949-0909

Released February 11, 2021, by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, United Sta tes Department
of Agriculture (USDA).

Special Note
The following Farm Labor report, originally scheduled for release November 25, 2020, includes quarterly and annual
average farm labor data for year 2020; these data are regularly published on an annual basis, as part of the NASS Farm
Labor program. This report is provided following a December 2020 court-ordered reinstatement of the NASS Farm Labor
program, which followed a USDA-mandated program suspension effective September 2020. See United Farm Workers v.
Perdue, No. 20-cv-01452-DAD-JLT (E.D. Cal. Oct. 28, 2020) and Federal Register (Vol. 85, No. 238, pages 7946379464) for additional information regarding the program reinstatement.
The October 2020 Agricultural Labor Survey, which provided the July and October 2020 labor data for this report, was
conducted in a six-week window following the December 2020 court-ordered program reinstatement, and approximately
eight weeks after the originally scheduled October survey data collection. Per requirements of the Office of Management
and Budget, information of the effects of the delayed data collection is included with this report. See the Survey
Methodology section of this report for more information.
Beginning in year 2020, the base wage rate item is calculated using base hours data. Publication of the year 2020 base
hours and base wage rate items are expanded in this report to include additional worker classifications. Those new items
are found throughout the report. See the Definitions and Survey Methodology sections of this report for more information
and any potential effects on data due to the delay in implementation of the data collection.

October Hired Workers Down 6 Percent; Gross Wage Rate Increased 6 Percent from Previous Year
There were 758,000 workers hired directly by farm operators on the Nation's farms and ranches during the week of
October 11-17, 2020, down 6 percent from the October 2019 reference week. Workers hired directly by farm operators
numbered 777,000 during the week of July 12-18, 2020, down 3 percent from the July 2019 reference week.
Farm operators paid their hired workers an average gross wage of $15.87 per hour during the October 2020 reference
week, up 6 percent from the October 2019 reference week. Field workers received an average of $15.28 per hour, up 6
percent. Livestock workers earned $14.62 per hour, up 6 percent. The field and livestock worker combined gross wage
rate, at $15.10 per hour, was up 6 percent from the 2019 reference week. Hired laborers worked an average of 42.1 hours
during the October 2020 reference week, down 1 percent from the hours worked during the October 2019 reference week.
Farm operators paid their hired workers an average gross wage of $15.62 per hour during the July 2020 reference week,
up 5 percent from the July 2019 reference week. Field workers received an average of $14.98 per hour, up 6 percent,
while livestock workers earned $14.50 per hour, up 5 percent from a year earlier. The field and livestock worker
combined gross wage rate, at $14.85 per hour, was up 5 percent from the July 2019 reference week. Hired laborers
worked an average of 41.4 hours during the July 2020 reference week, down 1 percent from the hours worked during the
July 2019 reference week.
The 2020 all hired worker annual average gross wage rate was $15.49 per hour, up 4 percent from the 2019 annual
average gross wage rate. The 2020 field worker annual average gross wage rate was $14.76 per hour, up 5 percent from
the 2019 annual average. The 2020 livestock worker annual average gross wage rate was $14.35 per hour. The 2020

annual average combined gross wage for field and livestock workers was $14.62, up 5 percent from the 2019 annual
average of $13.99 per hour.

2

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Contents
Hired Workers, Hours Worked by Hired Workers, Gross Wage Rates, and Base Wage Rates – United States .................... 5
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: October 11-17, 2020 ................ 6
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: October 11-17, 2020 ........................ 7
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: July 12-18, 2020 ...................... 8
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: July 12-18, 2020 .............................. 9
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: April 12-18, 2020 .................. 10
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: April 12-18, 2020 .......................... 11
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: January 12-18, 2020............... 12
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: January 12-18, 2020....................... 13
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: October 6-12, 2019 ................ 14
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: October 6-12, 2019 ........................ 15
Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States: July 7-13, 2019 ...................... 16
Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: July 7-13, 2019 .............................. 17
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions and 48 States:
October 11-17, 2020.......................................................................................................................................................... 18
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions and 48 States:
July 12-18, 2020................................................................................................................................................................ 18
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions and 48 States:
October 6-12, 2019............................................................................................................................................................ 19
Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions and 48 States:
July 7-13, 2019.................................................................................................................................................................. 19
All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions and 48 States:
October 11-17, 2020.......................................................................................................................................................... 20
All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions and 48 States: July 12-18, 2020 .................. 20
All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions and 48 States: October 6-12, 2019 .............. 21
All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions and 48 States: July 7-13, 2019 .................... 21
Field and Livestock Workers by Type of Farm.................................................................................................................. 22
Hired Workers by Economic Class of Farm ...................................................................................................................... 22
Hired Workers by Number of Workers on Farm................................................................................................................ 22
Hired Workers by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System ............................................................................ 23
Gross Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System ...................................................................... 23
Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System ........................................................................ 23
Annual Average Number of Hired Workers, Gross Wage, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
2019 and 2020 ................................................................................................................................................................... 24

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

3

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 .............................................................25
Annual Average Base Wage Rates – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 ..............................................................26
Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
– Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 .....................................................................................................................27
Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
– Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 (continued) ..................................................................................................29
Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
– Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 (continued) ..................................................................................................30
Farm Labor Regions – Map ..............................................................................................................................................31
Farm Labor Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................32
Survey Methodology ........................................................................................................................................................34
Information Contacts .........................................................................................................................................................38

4

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Hired Workers, Hours Worked by Hired Workers, Gross Wage Rates, and Base Wage Rates –
United States
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
July 7-13,
Farm employment
2019
(1,000)
Hired workers
150 days or more .......................
149 days or less .........................
Total ..................................................

594
208
802

October 6-12,
2019

January 12-18,
2020

April 12-18,
2020

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

603
206
809

495
73
568

578
110
688

575
202
777

577
181
758

(hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week) (hours per week)
Hours worked by hired workers
Gross hours ......................................
Base hours 1 .....................................

41.7
(NA)

42.5
(NA)

40.2
39.4

40.3
39.6

41.4
40.5

42.1
40.8

(dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour) (dollars per hour)
Gross wage rates 2
Field and livestock combined ..........
Field workers ..............................
Livestock workers ......................
All hired workers ...............................

14.08
14.19
13.79
14.91

14.21
14.38
13.77
15.02

14.20
14.18
14.22
15.28

14.16
14.19
14.10
15.07

14.85
14.98
14.50
15.62

15.10
15.28
14.62
15.87

Base wage rates 2 3
Field and livestock combined ..........
Field workers ..............................
Livestock workers ......................
All hired workers ...............................

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.03
14.03
14.04
15.12

13.97
13.99
13.94
14.89

14.73
14.86
14.38
15.51

14.86
14.99
14.51
15.65

(NA) Not available.
1
Data not collected for year 2019; estimates not established.
2
Benefits, such as housing and meals, are provided to some workers but the values are not included in either the gross wage rates or the base
wage rates.
3
Estimates not established for year 2019.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

5

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
October 11-17, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired workers
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

41
27

31
21

10
6

42.0
40.4

41.2
39.2

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

29
27

23
21

6
6

38.5
40.2

37.8
39.5

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

31
35

24
32

7
3

39.1
42.5

38.5
42.1

Lake ...............................

57

41

16

41.3

40.5

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

42
25

29
17

13
8

40.6
39.8

39.7
38.9

Delta ..............................

35

26

9

45.0

44.2

Northern Plains .............

39

28

11

46.0

45.1

Southern Plains ............

49

40

9

41.1

40.5

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

27
19
17

22
17
15

5
2
2

50.9
41.3
46.0

50.1
40.6
45.1

Pacific ............................
California .......................

86
168

46
141

40
27

40.3
42.9

38.9
39.9

Hawaii ............................

4

3

1

35.6

35.0

United States ................

758

577

181

42.1

40.8

1

6

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States:
October 11-17, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
1

Regions and
United States

Field workers

Livestock workers

Field and livestock
combined

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
15.32
14.56

(dollars per
hour)
15.20
14.37

(dollars per
hour)
14.92
13.42

(dollars per
hour)
14.84
13.37

(dollars per
hour)
15.20
14.25

(dollars per
hour)
15.10
14.10

(dollars per
hour)
16.16
15.34

(dollars per
hour)
16.06
15.21

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

13.28
13.11

13.18
13.00

12.94
13.22

12.84
13.13

13.20
13.15

13.10
13.05

13.90
13.70

13.81
13.61

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

12.02
12.35

11.92
12.25

12.37
13.15

12.27
13.00

12.10
12.48

12.00
12.37

12.73
13.82

12.63
13.72

Lake .............................

15.75

15.61

14.28

14.21

15.00

14.90

15.72

15.61

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

15.80
15.86

15.65
15.68

15.16
14.81

15.01
14.72

15.65
15.50

15.50
15.35

16.30
16.10

16.16
15.96

Delta ............................

11.67

11.57

12.05

11.95

11.75

11.65

12.09

11.99

Northern Plains ...........

17.04

16.85

15.52

15.43

16.45

16.30

16.83

16.69

Southern Plains ..........

13.47

13.37

14.08

13.98

13.80

13.70

14.30

14.21

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

14.69
14.80
13.56

14.58
14.62
13.40

15.37
14.70
14.37

15.29
14.58
14.23

15.00
14.75
13.90

14.90
14.60
13.75

15.48
15.42
14.71

15.38
15.29
14.57

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

17.54
16.50

16.60
16.20

16.63
16.25

16.59
16.05

17.45
16.46

16.60
16.17

17.88
17.64

17.10
17.41

Hawaii .........................

16.00

15.75

17.70

17.55

16.27

16.04

18.13

17.94

United States ..............

15.28

14.99

14.62

14.51

15.10

14.86

15.87

15.65

1

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

7

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
July 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired workers
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

38
34

29
22

9
12

40.5
40.7

39.9
39.7

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

31
27

23
21

8
6

38.7
38.4

38.3
38.0

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

32
33

23
31

9
2

39.8
43.2

39.4
42.8

Lake ...............................

58

44

14

39.8

39.2

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

39
21

28
16

11
5

38.4
37.7

37.9
37.3

Delta ..............................

32

26

6

41.6

41.3

Northern Plains .............

36

28

8

44.6

44.0

Southern Plains ............

50

40

10

40.8

40.4

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

29
21
16

22
17
14

7
4
2

48.3
41.0
45.2

47.5
40.4
44.5

Pacific ............................
California .......................

107
169

51
137

56
32

41.9
42.1

40.4
40.5

Hawaii ............................

4

3

1

36.3

35.9

United States ................

777

575

202

41.4

40.5

1

8

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: July 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Regions1 and
United States

Field workers

Livestock workers

Field and livestock
combined

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
15.23
13.84

(dollars per
hour)
15.13
13.75

(dollars per
hour)
14.67
13.19

(dollars per
hour)
14.58
13.08

(dollars per
hour)
15.05
13.70

(dollars per
hour)
14.95
13.60

(dollars per
hour)
16.08
14.61

(dollars per
hour)
15.99
14.52

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

13.38
12.91

13.32
12.78

12.73
13.01

12.46
12.82

13.25
12.95

13.15
12.80

13.88
13.51

13.78
13.36

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

12.02
12.50

11.91
12.45

12.66
12.95

12.57
12.85

12.15
12.58

12.05
12.52

12.69
13.79

12.59
13.74

Lake .............................

14.71

14.61

14.29

14.20

14.50

14.40

15.24

15.13

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

14.80
15.46

14.71
15.33

14.97
14.68

14.87
14.63

14.85
15.15

14.75
15.05

15.70
15.90

15.61
15.80

Delta ............................

11.88

11.83

12.19

12.12

11.95

11.90

12.32

12.27

Northern Plains ...........

16.83

16.73

15.57

15.47

16.30

16.20

16.68

16.58

Southern Plains ..........

13.26

13.25

13.84

13.74

13.55

13.50

13.94

13.88

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

14.10
14.81
13.74

14.02
14.70
13.60

15.17
14.57
14.30

15.14
14.49
14.14

14.60
14.70
14.00

14.55
14.60
13.85

15.10
15.28
14.85

15.04
15.18
14.70

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

16.49
16.30

16.34
16.20

16.00
16.25

15.85
16.10

16.45
16.29

16.30
16.18

16.87
17.53

16.73
17.45

Hawaii .........................

15.25

15.15

18.00

17.90

15.90

15.80

17.74

17.64

United States ..............

14.98

14.86

14.50

14.38

14.85

14.73

15.62

15.51

1

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

9

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
April 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

28
25

23
22

5
3

40.5
39.4

39.9
38.8

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

31
22

25
20

6
2

38.8
39.2

38.3
38.1

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

30
38

26
32

4
6

38.4
40.7

37.7
40.2

Lake ...............................

53

43

10

41.6

41.0

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

36
29

32
23

4
6

39.9
37.9

39.0
37.3

Delta ..............................

28

22

6

41.7

41.2

Northern Plains .............

42

38

4

41.5

41.0

Southern Plains ............

61

51

10

39.2

38.7

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

25
18
17

21
16
16

4
2
1

44.3
42.9
47.5

43.7
42.1
47.0

Pacific ............................
California .......................

58
143

39
126

19
17

41.6
38.9

41.0
38.0

Hawaii ............................

4

3

1

33.5

33.1

United States ................

688

578

110

40.3

39.6

1

Region map on page 31.

10

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: April 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Regions1 and
United States

Field workers

Livestock workers

Field and livestock
combined

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
15.39
14.64

(dollars per
hour)
15.28
14.54

(dollars per
hour)
14.29
13.42

(dollars per
hour)
14.19
13.19

(dollars per
hour)
14.85
14.20

(dollars per
hour)
14.75
14.05

(dollars per
hour)
16.00
15.24

(dollars per
hour)
15.88
15.09

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

13.12
12.65

13.01
12.54

13.06
13.05

12.96
12.95

13.10
12.85

13.00
12.75

13.65
13.47

13.54
13.36

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

11.51
11.65

11.47
11.55

11.13
11.80

11.03
11.65

11.40
11.67

11.35
11.56

11.79
12.52

11.72
12.41

Lake .............................

14.56

14.49

14.62

14.43

14.60

14.45

15.26

15.11

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

15.77
15.18

15.70
15.09

13.95
15.50

13.79
15.30

15.25
15.35

15.15
15.20

15.78
15.79

15.67
15.64

Delta ............................

11.84

11.83

11.86

11.73

11.85

11.80

12.23

12.18

Northern Plains ...........

15.89

15.78

14.59

14.49

15.20

15.10

15.93

15.83

Southern Plains ..........

11.91

11.90

12.73

12.55

12.35

12.25

12.79

12.68

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

13.74
14.28
13.08

13.66
13.31
12.96

14.21
14.95
13.93

14.18
14.95
13.63

14.00
14.65
13.45

13.95
14.21
13.25

14.83
15.16
14.17

14.77
14.76
13.97

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

15.06
15.60

14.17
15.50

14.95
16.35

14.89
16.05

15.05
15.76

14.25
15.61

15.88
17.48

15.17
17.36

Hawaii .........................

14.90

14.80

17.95

17.80

15.29

15.19

16.87

16.77

United States ..............

14.19

13.99

14.10

13.94

14.16

13.97

15.07

14.89

1

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

11

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
January 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired workers
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

21
20

18
18

3
2

41.6
38.9

41.0
38.4

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

24
18

20
17

4
1

38.3
38.9

37.7
38.1

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

23
39

21
30

2
9

37.3
40.9

36.7
40.6

Lake ...............................

44

38

6

41.0

40.4

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

28
25

26
21

2
4

36.9
37.2

36.5
36.8

Delta ..............................

20

17

3

37.6

37.1

Northern Plains .............

35

33

2

40.9

40.1

Southern Plains ............

55

47

8

39.1

38.6

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

18
15
18

17
14
16

1
1
2

42.7
43.5
47.5

42.3
42.3
46.9

Pacific ............................
California .......................

39
121

32
107

7
14

36.9
42.0

36.5
40.8

Hawaii ............................

5

3

2

33.8

33.6

United States ................

568

495

73

40.2

39.4

1

Region map on page 31.

12

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States:
January 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
1

Regions and
United States

Field workers

Livestock workers

Field and livestock
combined

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
15.19
14.87

(dollars per
hour)
15.01
14.76

(dollars per
hour)
14.30
13.43

(dollars per
hour)
14.17
13.24

(dollars per
hour)
14.65
14.20

(dollars per
hour)
14.50
14.05

(dollars per
hour)
16.10
15.46

(dollars per
hour)
15.92
15.29

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

13.02
12.64

13.01
12.51

13.11
12.90

12.98
12.83

13.05
12.80

13.00
12.70

13.79
13.50

13.72
13.39

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

11.83
11.65

11.76
11.60

10.84
11.80

10.81
11.65

11.50
11.67

11.45
11.61

11.99
12.46

11.92
12.40

Lake .............................

15.22

15.17

14.65

14.53

14.80

14.70

15.55

15.44

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

16.29
15.61

16.15
15.56

14.19
15.37

14.01
15.24

15.50
15.45

15.35
15.35

16.17
15.98

16.02
15.87

Delta ............................

12.24

12.07

11.89

11.77

12.10

11.95

12.57

12.42

Northern Plains ...........

16.83

16.66

14.63

14.46

15.55

15.40

16.41

16.27

Southern Plains ..........

12.31

12.30

12.93

12.75

12.65

12.55

13.12

13.01

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

14.46
14.79
13.00

14.30
14.60
12.90

14.44
15.48
13.97

14.37
15.44
13.88

14.45
15.25
13.40

14.35
15.15
13.30

15.40
15.86
14.06

15.30
15.76
13.96

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

15.36
15.15

14.72
15.00

15.30
16.05

14.58
15.75

15.35
15.40

14.69
15.20

16.61
17.33

16.04
17.19

Hawaii .........................

14.60

14.55

17.55

17.40

14.88

14.82

16.38

16.31

United States ..............

14.18

14.03

14.22

14.04

14.20

14.03

15.28

15.12

1

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

13

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
October 6-12, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired workers
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours2

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

38
34

27
27

11
7

41.8
40.0

(NA)
(NA)

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

41
29

31
22

10
7

39.5
40.7

(NA)
(NA)

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

26
31

20
24

6
7

40.3
41.6

(NA)
(NA)

Lake ...............................

68

51

17

41.0

(NA)

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

42
26

28
18

14
8

37.6
38.3

(NA)
(NA)

Delta ..............................

32

24

8

46.9

(NA)

Northern Plains .............

43

33

10

43.4

(NA)

Southern Plains ............

49

36

13

40.2

(NA)

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

30
21
19

22
16
16

8
5
3

46.9
41.8
48.4

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

Pacific ............................
California .......................

108
168

65
140

43
28

44.0
44.7

(NA)
(NA)

Hawaii ............................

4

3

1

36.0

(NA)

United States ................

809

603

206

42.5

(NA)

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Data not collected for year 2019; estimates not established.

14

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States:
October 6-12, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
1

Regions and
United States

Field workers

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Field and livestock
combined

Livestock workers

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
14.54
13.69

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
13.46
12.80

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
14.20
13.50

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
15.13
14.81

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

12.70
12.25

(NA)
(NA)

12.95
12.09

(NA)
(NA)

12.75
12.20

(NA)
(NA)

13.29
12.78

(NA)
(NA)

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

11.68
11.95

(NA)
(NA)

11.75
11.95

(NA)
(NA)

11.70
11.95

(NA)
(NA)

12.31
13.27

(NA)
(NA)

Lake .............................

15.57

(NA)

14.58

(NA)

15.00

(NA)

15.64

(NA)

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

15.03
14.45

(NA)
(NA)

13.83
14.68

(NA)
(NA)

14.75
14.55

(NA)
(NA)

15.39
15.10

(NA)
(NA)

Delta ............................

11.14

(NA)

12.20

(NA)

11.35

(NA)

11.74

(NA)

Northern Plains ...........

16.41

(NA)

13.76

(NA)

15.40

(NA)

15.87

(NA)

Southern Plains ..........

12.61

(NA)

12.76

(NA)

12.70

(NA)

13.33

(NA)

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

13.09
14.47
12.63

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13.93
14.27
13.28

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13.45
14.40
12.90

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.07
15.02
13.53

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

16.56
14.75

(NA)
(NA)

15.20
15.10

(NA)
(NA)

16.45
14.80

(NA)
(NA)

16.87
16.15

(NA)
(NA)

Hawaii .........................

14.35

(NA)

15.80

(NA)

14.53

(NA)

16.37

(NA)

United States ..............

14.38

(NA)

13.77

(NA)

14.21

(NA)

15.02

(NA)

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Estimates not established for year 2019.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

15

Number of Workers, Gross Hours, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and United States:
July 7-13, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Regions1 and
United States

Hired
Expected to be employed

Number of hours worked

Number of
workers

150 days or more

149 days or less

Gross hours

Base hours2

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I .....................
Northeast II ....................

36
40

26
28

10
12

39.8
40.2

(NA)
(NA)

Appalachian I ................
Appalachian II ...............

41
29

31
21

10
8

39.2
38.0

(NA)
(NA)

Southeast ......................
Florida ............................

27
28

20
23

7
5

40.4
41.0

(NA)
(NA)

Lake ...............................

66

50

16

40.5

(NA)

Cornbelt I .......................
Cornbelt II ......................

39
23

28
17

11
6

35.9
37.2

(NA)
(NA)

Delta ..............................

30

23

7

44.0

(NA)

Northern Plains .............

37

29

8

42.2

(NA)

Southern Plains ............

43

35

8

40.6

(NA)

Mountain I .....................
Mountain II ....................
Mountain III ...................

28
21
17

22
16
16

6
5
1

46.7
44.7
46.7

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

Pacific ............................
California .......................

119
174

58
148

61
26

43.3
43.7

(NA)
(NA)

Hawaii ............................

4

3

1

35.9

(NA)

United States ................

802

594

208

41.7

(NA)

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Data not collected for year 2019; estimates not established.

16

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Gross Wage and Base Wage Rates by Type of Worker – Regions and United States: July 7-13, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Type of worker
Regions1 and
United States

Field workers

Wage rates for
all hired workers

Field and livestock
combined

Livestock workers

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Gross wage

Base wage2

Northeast I ..................
Northeast II .................

(dollars per
hour)
14.34
12.87

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
13.69
12.50

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
14.10
12.80

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
15.17
14.12

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

Appalachian I ..............
Appalachian II .............

12.70
12.11

(NA)
(NA)

12.98
12.22

(NA)
(NA)

12.75
12.15

(NA)
(NA)

13.33
12.77

(NA)
(NA)

Southeast ....................
Florida .........................

11.43
12.00

(NA)
(NA)

11.75
12.25

(NA)
(NA)

11.50
12.05

(NA)
(NA)

12.06
13.13

(NA)
(NA)

Lake .............................

14.39

(NA)

14.41

(NA)

14.40

(NA)

15.05

(NA)

Cornbelt I ....................
Cornbelt II ...................

14.15
14.15

(NA)
(NA)

13.96
14.58

(NA)
(NA)

14.10
14.35

(NA)
(NA)

14.97
15.08

(NA)
(NA)

Delta ............................

11.49

(NA)

12.23

(NA)

11.65

(NA)

12.03

(NA)

Northern Plains ...........

15.90

(NA)

13.81

(NA)

15.00

(NA)

15.61

(NA)

Southern Plains ..........

12.67

(NA)

12.93

(NA)

12.80

(NA)

13.41

(NA)

Mountain I ...................
Mountain II ..................
Mountain III .................

13.61
13.83
12.04

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13.47
14.24
13.45

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

13.55
13.95
12.70

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.17
14.52
13.43

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

Pacific ..........................
California .....................

15.97
15.00

(NA)
(NA)

15.05
15.00

(NA)
(NA)

15.90
15.00

(NA)
(NA)

16.26
16.35

(NA)
(NA)

Hawaii .........................

14.35

(NA)

16.10

(NA)

14.63

(NA)

16.46

(NA)

United States ..............

14.19

(NA)

13.79

(NA)

14.08

(NA)

14.91

(NA)

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Estimates not established for year 2019.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

17

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: October 11-17, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Regions1

Field
crop farms

Other
crop farms

Livestock and
poultry farms

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

2

Northeast ..............................................................
Appalachian 3 ..........................................................
Southeast and Florida ............................................
Lake .........................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ................................................................
Delta ........................................................................
Northern Plains .......................................................
Southern Plains ......................................................
Mountain 5 ...............................................................
Pacific and California ..............................................

16.50
13.51
12.54
17.08
16.09
11.45
16.70
13.47
17.58
17.12

15.05
13.07
12.20
14.93
15.16
11.94
16.75
13.44
13.93
16.84

14.05
12.90
12.56
14.42
14.99
12.00
16.09
14.05
14.87
16.47

14.84
13.17
12.30
15.00
15.59
11.75
16.45
13.80
14.65
16.79

48 States 6 ...............................................................

15.21

15.24

14.67

15.09

1
2
3
4
5
6

Region map on page 31.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: July 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Regions1

Field
crop farms

Other
crop farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Livestock and
poultry farms

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Northeast 2 ..............................................................
Appalachian 3 ..........................................................
Southeast and Florida ............................................
Lake .........................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ................................................................
Delta ........................................................................
Northern Plains .......................................................
Southern Plains ......................................................
Mountain 5 ...............................................................
Pacific and California ..............................................

16.58
13.40
12.41
15.84
16.18
11.62
17.15
13.16
15.67
16.82

14.48
13.24
12.27
13.93
14.08
12.07
15.40
13.33
13.97
16.36

13.78
12.70
12.66
14.63
14.74
12.34
15.96
13.75
14.70
16.23

14.40
13.11
12.37
14.50
14.96
11.95
16.30
13.55
14.49
16.35

48 States 6 ...............................................................

14.79

14.99

14.48

14.84

1
2
3
4
5
6

Region map on page 31.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

18

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: October 6-12, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Field
crop farms

Other
crop farms

Livestock and
poultry farms

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Regions1

2

Northeast ..............................................................
Appalachian 3 ..........................................................
Southeast and Florida ............................................
Lake .........................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ................................................................
Delta ........................................................................
Northern Plains .......................................................
Southern Plains ......................................................
Mountain 5 ...............................................................
Pacific and California .............................................

14.15
12.53
11.11
17.35
15.23
11.05
16.44
13.44
13.40
15.97

14.04
12.48
11.86
14.83
13.87
11.13
16.50
11.95
13.52
15.53

13.52
12.55
12.00
14.68
14.51
12.27
13.94
12.87
13.61
14.98

13.88
12.52
11.83
15.00
14.67
11.35
15.40
12.70
13.55
15.46

48 States 6 ..............................................................

13.98

14.50

13.78

14.21

1
2
3
4
5
6

Region map on page 31.
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii

Combined Field and Livestock Worker Gross Wage Rates by Type of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: July 7-13, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Field
crop farms

Regions1

Other
crop farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Livestock and
poultry farms

All
farms

(dollars per hour)

(dollars per hour)

Northeast 2 ..............................................................
Appalachian 3 ..........................................................
Southeast and Florida ............................................
Lake .........................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ................................................................
Delta ........................................................................
Northern Plains .......................................................
Southern Plains ......................................................
Mountain 5 ...............................................................
Pacific and California .............................................

(S)
12.63
11.38
15.82
15.25
11.46
16.45
13.11
13.23
15.42

13.45
12.27
11.63
13.96
13.02
11.65
14.33
11.89
13.43
15.43

13.34
12.72
12.36
14.46
14.35
12.08
13.98
13.24
13.50
15.01

13.42
12.51
11.78
14.40
14.20
11.65
15.00
12.80
13.45
15.37

48 States 6 ..............................................................

13.76

14.28

13.86

14.08

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

19

All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: October 11-17, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Northeast 2 .........................................................
Appalachian 3 .....................................................
Southeast and Florida .......................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ...........................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ..................................................
Southern Plains .................................................
Mountain 5 ..........................................................
Pacific and California .........................................

17.36
13.71
12.94
15.75
12.98
11.83
(S)
15.13
13.87
17.00

(S)
11.75
11.75
13.73
14.62
11.80
16.46
14.91
16.42
17.05

14.70
13.32
12.17
12.80
14.64
11.38
14.99
15.08
15.56
17.40

13.03
12.73
13.23
13.41
15.57
13.22
(S)
14.64
14.74
18.43

15.32
13.65
12.93
14.86
15.82
12.27
15.61
13.47
14.97
17.28

16.07
14.47
13.63
16.39
17.16
11.96
16.97
13.91
15.35
17.77

15.84
13.80
13.33
15.72
16.23
12.09
16.83
14.30
15.26
17.72

48 States 6 ..........................................................

14.68

14.92

14.68

15.71

15.28

16.21

15.86

Regions1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: July 12-18, 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

Northeast 2 .........................................................
Appalachian 3 .....................................................
Southeast and Florida .......................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ...........................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ..................................................
Southern Plains .................................................
Mountain 5 ..........................................................
Pacific and California .........................................

(dollars per
hour)
16.71
13.30
13.63
15.00
11.36
11.93
(S)
12.84
14.15
15.73

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
11.87
12.73
11.32
13.76
12.27
13.58
14.59
15.20
15.90

(dollars per
hour)
14.29
13.00
11.88
12.90
13.99
11.70
17.47
14.77
15.49
16.86

(dollars per
hour)
13.42
12.38
12.76
13.72
13.75
13.43
(S)
14.50
14.08
17.01

(dollars per
hour)
15.16
13.38
12.65
14.61
15.98
12.31
15.60
13.62
14.52
16.84

(dollars per
hour)
15.48
14.70
13.72
15.99
16.75
12.17
16.73
14.17
15.32
17.43

(dollars per
hour)
15.38
13.71
13.27
15.24
15.77
12.32
16.68
13.94
15.09
17.27

48 States 6 ..........................................................

13.62

14.09

14.50

14.98

15.01

16.13

15.61

Regions1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

20

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: October 6-12, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

(dollars per
hour)

Northeast 2 .........................................................
Appalachian 3 .....................................................
Southeast and Florida .......................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ...........................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ..................................................
Southern Plains .................................................
Mountain 5 ..........................................................
Pacific and California ........................................

(S)
12.89
(S)
12.57
13.62
(S)
13.67
12.44
13.04
15.60

13.74
11.70
12.30
13.70
13.48
10.80
12.35
13.18
14.05
16.63

14.32
12.44
12.83
12.92
13.77
12.58
12.04
14.16
14.05
16.86

14.11
13.69
11.49
15.22
14.50
11.63
15.31
14.86
14.33
15.89

14.20
12.22
12.25
16.48
14.28
11.69
15.83
14.00
12.95
15.64

15.36
13.43
13.18
16.00
16.39
11.56
16.57
13.23
14.40
16.49

14.98
13.08
12.84
15.64
15.28
11.74
15.87
13.33
14.18
16.43

48 States 6 .........................................................

12.95

13.68

14.40

14.35

14.35

15.46

15.01

Regions1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

All Hired Worker Gross Wage Rates by Economic Class of Farm – Regions
and 48 States: July 7-13, 2019
[Excludes agricultural service workers]
Gross value sales-$1,000
<50

50-99

100-249

250-499

500-999

1,000+

All
farms

Northeast 2 .........................................................
Appalachian 3 .....................................................
Southeast and Florida .......................................
Lake ....................................................................
Cornbelt 4 ...........................................................
Delta ...................................................................
Northern Plains ..................................................
Southern Plains .................................................
Mountain 5 ..........................................................
Pacific and California ........................................

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
12.53
(S)
12.56
(S)
(S)
(S)
13.69
12.20
15.78

(dollars per
hour)
13.49
12.55
12.77
13.79
11.17
10.75
12.88
12.58
12.80
15.66

(dollars per
hour)
13.25
12.68
12.23
12.21
13.58
12.53
15.50
13.54
13.07
16.74

(dollars per
hour)
13.68
13.52
11.22
14.42
14.51
11.62
13.32
14.31
14.95
16.76

(dollars per
hour)
13.71
12.48
12.16
15.64
14.38
12.04
15.14
13.45
14.43
16.01

(dollars per
hour)
14.99
13.50
12.91
15.48
16.15
11.91
16.21
13.22
14.23
16.30

(dollars per
hour)
14.61
13.10
12.61
15.05
15.01
12.03
15.61
13.41
14.08
16.31

48 States 6 .........................................................

13.11

13.36

14.21

14.51

14.52

15.31

14.90

Regions1

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Includes Northeast I and Northeast II.
3
Includes Appalachian I and Appalachian II.
4
Includes Cornbelt I and Cornbelt II.
5
Includes Mountain I, Mountain II, and Mountain III.
6
Excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

21

Field and Livestock Workers by Type of Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers, Alaska, and Hawaii]
Type of farm

July 7-13,
2019

October 6-12,
2019

January 12-18,
2020

April 12-18,
2020

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

Field crop farms ......................................
Other crop farms .....................................
Livestock, dairy, and poultry farms ........

12
57
31

14
55
31

13
43
44

14
48
38

12
57
31

16
53
31

Hired Workers by Economic Class of Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers, Alaska, and Hawaii]
July 7-13,
Gross value of sales
2019
(percent)
Less than $50,000 ..................................
$50,000-$99,999 .....................................
$100,000-$249,999 ................................
$250,000-$499,999 ................................
$500,000-$999,999 ................................
$1,000,000 and over ...............................

October 6-12,
2019

January 12-18,
2020

April 12-18,
2020

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

8
4
8
8
11
61

8
3
8
8
11
62

7
4
8
8
11
62

7
4
10
8
11
60

7
5
8
9
11
60

6
4
8
9
12
61

Hired Workers by Number of Workers on Farm
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
July 7-13,
Number of workers on farm
2019
(percent)
1 worker ..............................................
2 workers .............................................
3-6 workers .........................................
7-10 workers .......................................
11-20 workers .....................................
21-50 workers .....................................
51 or more workers ............................

22

8
7
16
8
10
14
37

October 6-12,
2019

January 12-18,
2020

April 12-18,
2020

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

(percent)

9
7
16
7
10
15
36

10
10
18
8
11
15
28

8
10
18
8
13
14
29

8
7
17
8
11
13
36

7
7
18
8
11
13
36

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Hired Workers by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Title

Graders and sorters, agricultural products ............................................
Agricultural equipment operators ...........................................................
Farmworkers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse ......................................
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals ...........................
Agricultural workers, all other .................................................................
Packers and packagers, hand ................................................................

SOC Code

July 7-13,
2019

October 6-12,
2019

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(1,000)

(45-2041)
(45-2091)
(45-2092)
(45-2093)
(45-2099)
(53-7064)

13
130
374
165
12
14

16
145
352
174
11
19

17
140
346
152
13
20

15
154
320
153
11
16

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers ............................ (11-9013)
First-line supervisors of farming, fishing workers .................................. (45-1011)

22
25

23
26

25
20

25
20

Gross Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Title

SOC Code

July 7-13,
2019

October 6-12,
2019

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(45-2041)
(45-2091)
(45-2092)
(45-2093)
(45-2099)
(53-7064)

(dollars per
hour)
13.40
14.55
14.10
13.65
13.80
14.05

(dollars per
hour)
13.23
14.64
14.30
13.70
13.98
14.66

(dollars per
hour)
14.00
15.65
14.80
14.45
14.60
14.40

(dollars per
hour)
14.60
15.70
15.25
14.65
14.55
14.85

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers ............................ (11-9013)
First-line supervisors of farming, fishing workers .................................. (45-1011)

24.60
21.20

24.15
21.10

25.95
22.65

26.35
22.05

Graders and sorters, agricultural products ............................................
Agricultural equipment operators ...........................................................
Farmworkers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse ......................................
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals ...........................
Agricultural workers, all other .................................................................
Packers and packagers, hand ................................................................

Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Title

SOC Code

July 7-13,
2019 1

October 6-12,
2019 1

July 12-18,
2020

October 11-17,
2020

(45-2041)
(45-2091)
(45-2092)
(45-2093)
(45-2099)
(53-7064)

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
13.80
15.45
14.50
14.20
14.55
14.30

(dollars per
hour)
14.35
15.45
14.70
14.30
14.45
14.40

Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers ............................ (11-9013)
First-line supervisors of farming, fishing workers .................................. (45-1011)

(NA)
(NA)

(NA)
(NA)

25.60
22.25

25.90
21.70

Graders and sorters, agricultural products ............................................
Agricultural equipment operators ...........................................................
Farmworkers, crop, nursery, and greenhouse ......................................
Farmworkers, farm, ranch, and aquacultural animals ...........................
Agricultural workers, all other .................................................................
Packers and packagers, hand ................................................................

(NA) Not available.
1
Estimates not established for year 2019.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

23

Annual Average Number of Hired Workers, Gross Wage, and Base Hours Worked – Regions and
United States: 2019 and 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska]
Hired workers
Regions1 and
United States
2019
2020
(1,000)

Hours worked
2019

(1,000)

2020

Gross

Base2

Gross

Base

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

(hours per week)

Northeast I ..................................
Northeast II .................................

32.5
30.5

32.0
26.5

40.4
39.6

(NA)
(NA)

41.2
40.0

40.5
39.1

Appalachian I .............................
Appalachian II ............................

31.5
22.8

28.8
23.5

38.9
39.0

(NA)
(NA)

38.6
39.2

38.0
38.5

Southeast ...................................

25.0

29.0

39.5

(NA)

38.8

38.2

Florida .........................................

33.3

36.3

40.8

(NA)

41.8

41.4

Lake ............................................

56.0

53.0

40.1

(NA)

40.9

40.2

Cornbelt I ....................................
Cornbelt II ...................................

34.8
23.3

36.3
25.0

36.7
37.0

(NA)
(NA)

39.1
38.2

38.4
37.6

Delta ...........................................

27.3

28.8

43.0

(NA)

42.0

41.4

Northern Plains ..........................
Southern Plains .........................

33.8
43.0

38.0
53.8

42.9
39.7

(NA)
(NA)

43.3
40.0

42.6
39.5

Mountain I ..................................
Mountain II .................................
Mountain III ................................

25.8
16.8
15.8

24.8
18.3
17.0

45.2
43.4
46.5

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

47.0
42.1
46.6

46.3
41.3
45.9

Pacific .........................................
California ....................................

77.3
151.5

72.5
150.3

42.7
43.1

(NA)
(NA)

40.7
41.5

39.6
39.8

Hawaii .........................................

4.5

4.3

36.0

(NA)

34.7

34.4

United States .............................

684.8

697.8

41.2

(NA)

41.1

40.1

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Data not collected for year 2019; estimates not established.

24

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual rates are averages of the published wage rates for each survey week weighted by the
number of hours worked during the week]
Regions1 and
United States

Field

Field and
Livestock

Livestock

All Hired

2019

2020

2019

2020

2019

2020

2019

2020

Northeast I ......................................
Northeast II .....................................

(dollars per
hour)
14.65
13.42

(dollars per
hour)
15.29
14.35

(dollars per
hour)
13.81
13.12

(dollars per
hour)
14.54
13.37

(dollars per
hour)
14.29
13.34

(dollars per
hour)
14.99
14.05

(dollars per
hour)
15.39
14.63

(dollars per
hour)
16.09
15.10

Appalachian I ..................................
Appalachian II .................................

12.74
12.26

13.22
12.89

12.46
12.61

12.91
13.05

12.67
12.40

13.15
12.96

13.30
13.16

13.80
13.55

Southeast ........................................
Florida .............................................

11.76
11.75

11.86
12.01

11.55
11.52

11.69
12.45

11.71
11.71

11.81
12.08

12.38
12.58

12.34
13.12

Lake .................................................

14.88

15.07

14.12

14.47

14.40

14.72

15.04

15.44

Cornbelt I ........................................
Cornbelt II .......................................

14.68
14.35

15.61
15.54

14.14
14.79

14.57
15.20

14.52
14.58

15.31
15.37

15.37
15.26

15.99
15.94

Delta ................................................

11.74

11.84

12.12

12.03

11.83

11.88

12.21

12.26

Northern Plains ...............................

16.24

16.68

13.61

15.12

14.99

15.89

15.72

16.46

Southern Plains ..............................

12.30

12.69

12.96

13.34

12.67

13.03

13.46

13.50

Mountain I .......................................
Mountain II ......................................
Mountain III .....................................

13.36
14.19
12.39

14.25
14.68
13.31

13.86
14.35
13.58

14.81
14.92
14.13

13.62
14.26
12.91

14.55
14.82
13.67

14.46
14.95
13.61

15.20
15.41
14.43

Pacific ..............................................
California .........................................

15.91
14.71

16.41
16.01

14.99
15.04

15.78
16.22

15.83
14.77

16.34
16.05

16.37
16.21

16.93
17.51

Hawaii .............................................

14.72

15.15

16.18

17.83

14.90

15.56

16.61

17.25

United States ..................................

14.11

14.76

13.74

14.35

13.99

14.62

14.91

15.49

1

Region map on page 31.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

25

Annual Average Base Wage Rates – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual rates are averages of the published wage rates for each survey week weighted by the
number of hours worked during the week]
Regions1 and
United States

Field
2019

2

(dollars per
hour)
Northeast I .......................................
(NA)
Northeast II ......................................
(NA)

2020

2019

Livestock

Field and
Livestock

2

2

2020

2019

All Hired

2020

2019

2

2020

(dollars per
hour)
15.17
14.23

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
14.44
13.22

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
14.88
13.91

(dollars per
hour)
(NA)
(NA)

(dollars per
hour)
15.98
14.97

Appalachian I ..................................
Appalachian II .................................

(NA)
(NA)

13.14
12.77

(NA)
(NA)

12.83
12.93

(NA)
(NA)

13.06
12.84

(NA)
(NA)

13.71
13.44

Southeast ........................................
Florida ..............................................

(NA)
(NA)

11.78
11.94

(NA)
(NA)

11.61
12.32

(NA)
(NA)

11.74
12.00

(NA)
(NA)

12.25
13.04

Lake .................................................

(NA)

14.97

(NA)

14.35

(NA)

14.61

(NA)

15.32

Cornbelt I .........................................
Cornbelt II ........................................

(NA)
(NA)

15.49
15.42

(NA)
(NA)

14.42
15.06

(NA)
(NA)

15.19
15.24

(NA)
(NA)

15.86
15.81

Delta ................................................

(NA)

11.77

(NA)

11.89

(NA)

11.80

(NA)

12.18

Northern Plains ...............................

(NA)

16.53

(NA)

14.91

(NA)

15.76

(NA)

16.34

Southern Plains ..............................

(NA)

12.66

(NA)

13.19

(NA)

12.95

(NA)

13.41

Mountain I .......................................
Mountain II ......................................
Mountain III .....................................

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.16
14.33
13.18

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.76
14.87
13.96

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

14.48
14.62
13.52

(NA)
(NA)
(NA)

15.12
15.22
14.28

Pacific ..............................................
California .........................................

(NA)
(NA)

15.81
15.83

(NA)
(NA)

15.55
15.98

(NA)
(NA)

15.78
15.86

(NA)
(NA)

16.43
17.36

Hawaii ..............................................

(NA)

15.02

(NA)

17.70

(NA)

15.43

(NA)

17.13

United States ..................................

(NA)

14.56

(NA)

14.20

(NA)

14.44

(NA)

15.32

(NA) Not available.
1
Region map on page 31.
2
Estimates not established for year 2019.

26

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification
(SOC) System – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual gross and base wages are averages of the wage rates for each survey week weighted by
the number of hours worked during the week. Base wages between 2019 and 2020 are not comparable. Refer to Base Wage Rate definition on
page 33]
Graders and sorters, agricultural products
Agricultural equipment operators
1
SOC
Code
(45-2041)
SOC Code (45-2091)
Regions and
United States

2019

2020

2019

2020

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I .........................
Northeast II ........................

(dollars per
hour)
13.29
13.77

(dollars per
hour)
13.27
12.94

(dollars per
hour)
14.36
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
14.25
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
15.46
14.86

(dollars per
hour)
14.98
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
16.52

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
16.31

Appalachian I .....................
Appalachian II ....................

11.38
11.66

11.17
11.66

(S)
11.55

(S)
11.38

(S)
13.97

(S)
13.84

14.82
13.72

14.68
13.66

Southeast ...........................
Florida ................................

8.90
12.07

8.85
11.87

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

12.22
12.20

12.06
12.02

11.84
12.99

11.80
12.94

Lake ....................................

12.61

11.85

(S)

(S)

15.06

14.84

16.04

15.72

Cornbelt I ...........................
Cornbelt II ..........................

(S)
14.41

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

16.32
14.81

15.62
14.51

16.38
15.84

16.24
15.82

Delta ...................................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

12.13

11.86

12.31

12.28

Northern Plains ..................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

16.57

16.27

16.60

16.58

Southern Plains .................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

13.29

13.17

12.94

12.88

Mountain I ..........................
Mountain II .........................
Mountain III ........................

(S)
13.04
11.90

(S)
12.72
10.20

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

13.19
14.66
13.09

12.98
14.24
12.55

15.26
15.82
14.27

15.21
15.77
14.15

Pacific .................................
California ............................

14.64
14.59

13.92
13.65

15.27
16.86

15.16
16.47

15.98
15.25

15.32
13.83

16.97
16.89

16.75
16.51

Hawaii ................................

14.28

14.18

(S)

(S)

18.16

(S)

17.96

17.89

United States .....................

13.13

12.57

14.09

14.07

14.58

14.06

15.37

See footnote(s) at end of table.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

(S)
--continued

27

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification
(SOC) System – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 (continued)
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual gross and base wages are averages of the wage rates for each survey week weighted by
the number of hours worked during the week. Base wages between 2019 and 2020 are not comparable. Refer to Base Wage Rate definition on
page 33]
Farmworkers, crop, nursery,
Farmworkers, farm, ranch,
and greenhouse
and aquacultural animals
Regions1 and
SOC Code (45-2092)
SOC Code (45-2093)
United States
2019
2020
2019
2020
Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I .........................
Northeast II ........................

(dollars per
hour)
14.52
13.10

(dollars per
hour)
14.23
12.81

(dollars per
hour)
15.03
13.84

(dollars per
hour)
14.84
13.65

(dollars per
hour)
13.72
12.66

(dollars per
hour)
13.19
12.46

(dollars per
hour)
14.38
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
14.19
(S)

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

12.54
11.51

12.43
11.37

12.98
12.27

12.91
12.15

12.30
12.47

12.29
12.09

(S)
12.94

(S)
12.76

Southeast ..........................
Florida ................................

11.74
11.52

11.66
11.38

11.88
11.66

11.78
11.57

11.76
11.47

11.70
11.45

(S)
12.33

(S)
12.17

Lake ...................................

14.91

14.45

15.02

14.61

14.04

13.70

14.81

14.56

Cornbelt I ...........................
Cornbelt II ..........................

13.73
13.92

13.25
13.53

15.06
(S)

14.92
(S)

13.75
14.76

13.54
14.62

14.55
15.35

14.39
15.20

Delta ..................................

11.34

11.19

11.77

11.64

12.03

11.90

12.15

11.95

Northern Plains .................

14.23

14.02

15.04

14.86

13.47

13.20

(S)

(S)

Southern Plains ................

12.35

11.92

12.54

12.49

12.61

12.51

13.24

12.98

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

13.75
13.68
12.27

13.34
13.47
11.62

14.12
14.38
12.72

13.92
14.25
12.57

13.78
14.12
13.57

13.67
13.65
13.37

14.47
14.99
14.04

14.33
14.81
13.85

Pacific ................................
California ...........................

16.00
14.56

14.73
13.64

16.71
15.71

15.88
15.56

14.96
14.93

14.60
13.63

15.90
16.07

15.72
15.76

Hawaii ................................

14.33

13.79

14.88

14.78

16.31

15.81

17.57

17.38

United States ....................

13.98

13.33

14.59

14.29

13.60

13.22

14.28

See footnote(s) at end of table.

28

14.05
--continued

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification
(SOC) System – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 (continued)
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual gross and base wages are averages of the wage rates for each survey week weighted by
the number of hours worked during the week. Base wages between 2019 and 2020 are not comparable. Refer to Base Wage Rate definition on
page 33]
Agricultural worker, all other
Packers and packagers, hand
SOC Code (45-2099)
SOC Code (53-7064)
Regions1 and
United States

2019

2020

2019

2020

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I .........................
Northeast II ........................

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
13.49

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
13.03

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
13.42
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
12.82
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
15.30
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

Appalachian I .....................
Appalachian II ....................

(S)
13.03

(S)
12.95

12.77
13.28

12.70
13.25

(S)
11.99

(S)
11.98

(S)
12.15

(S)
12.01

Southeast ...........................
Florida ................................

(S)
11.70

(S)
11.68

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
12.96

(S)
12.84

(S)
11.38

(S)
11.22

Lake ....................................

13.25

13.06

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

Cornbelt I ...........................
Cornbelt II ..........................

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

14.72
(S)

(S)
(S)

Delta ...................................

11.40

11.37

11.39

11.37

12.25

12.25

12.03

12.02

Northern Plains ..................

(S)

(S)

15.38

15.29

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

Southern Plains .................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

Mountain I ..........................
Mountain II .........................
Mountain III ........................

(S)
(S)
12.50

(S)
(S)
12.32

(S)
15.13
13.46

(S)
15.04
13.12

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
13.32
(S)

(S)
13.24
(S)

Pacific .................................
California ............................

16.07
(S)

15.71
(S)

16.07
(S)

15.81
(S)

13.80
15.70

13.50
13.25

17.15
15.51

17.08
14.98

Hawaii ................................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

12.90

(S)

(S)

(S)

United States .....................

14.16

13.86

14.17

(S)

14.07

12.91

14.39

See footnote(s) at end of table.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

14.34
--continued

29

Annual Average Gross Wage Rates and Base Wage Rates by Standard Occupational Classification
(SOC) System – Regions and United States: 2019 and 2020 (continued)
[Excludes agricultural service workers and Alaska. Annual gross and base wages are averages of the wage rates for each survey week weighted by
the number of hours worked during the week. Base wages between 2019 and 2020 are not comparable. Refer to Base Wage Rate definition on
page 33]
Farmers, ranchers, and other
First-line supervisors of
agricultural managers
farming, fishing workers
Regions1 and
SOC Code (11-9013)
SOC Code (45-1011)
United States
2019
2020
2019
2020
Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Gross wage

Base wage

Northeast I .........................
Northeast II ........................

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
24.74
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
24.43
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
(S)
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
23.28
(S)

(dollars per
hour)
23.05
(S)

Appalachian I ....................
Appalachian II ...................

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
19.77

(S)
19.46

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

Southeast ..........................
Florida ................................

(S)
22.15

(S)
22.06

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

19.51
20.90

19.30
20.71

19.69
22.56

19.28
22.35

Lake ...................................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

22.58

(S)

Cornbelt I ...........................
Cornbelt II ..........................

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

21.40
(S)

20.66
(S)

(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)

Delta ..................................

19.88

19.67

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

Northern Plains .................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

20.97

20.87

(S)

(S)

Southern Plains ................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

Mountain I .........................
Mountain II ........................
Mountain III .......................

21.07
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

20.33
(S)
(S)

(S)
(S)
(S)

(S)
20.93
20.74

(S)
20.67
(S)

Pacific ................................
California ...........................

24.79
31.70

24.48
30.95

(S)
33.78

(S)
33.58

20.30
23.46

20.09
22.35

21.66
24.39

21.40
24.20

Hawaii ................................

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

(S)

United States ....................

24.66

24.24

25.57

25.37

21.36

20.85

22.48

22.22

(S) Insufficient number of reports to establish an estimate.
1
Region map on page 31.

30

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Farm Labor Regions
Pacific

Mountain I
Lake
States

Northern
Plains
Cornbelt
II

Mountain
II

Northeast I
Northeast
II
Cornbelt I

Appalachian
I

California
Appalachian
II
Mountain III
Delta
Southern
Plains

Hawaii

States

Northeast I

Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
New York, Rhode Island, Vermont.
Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania.
North Carolina, Virginia.
Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia.
Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina.
Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin.
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio.
Iowa, Missouri.
Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi.
Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota.
Oklahoma, Texas.
Idaho, Montana, Wyoming.
Colorado, Nevada, Utah.
Arizona, New Mexico.
Oregon, Washington.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Florida

USDA/ NASS

Region

Northeast II
Appalachian I
Appalachian II
Southeast
Lake
Cornbelt I
Cornbelt II
Delta
Northern Plains
Southern Plains
Mountain I
Mountain II
Mountain III
Pacific

Southeast

31

Farm Labor Definitions
The following definitions are provided to assist in interpreting statistics published in Farm Labor reports. To ensure
consistency in data collection, the questionnaires and instruction manual used by the interviewers provide more in-depth
explanations of these terms.
Farm or Ranch: The target population unit for the Farm Labor Survey, which is any place with $1,000 or more in annual
agricultural sales (or potential sales).
Agricultural Work: Work done on a farm or ranch in connection with the production of agricultural products, including
nursery and greenhouse products and animal specialties such as fur farms or apiaries. Also included is work done off the
farm to handle farm related business, such as trips to buy feed or deliver products to local market.
Hired Worker: Anyone, other than an agricultural service worker, who was paid for at least one hour of agricultural
work on a farm or ranch. Worker type is determined by what the employee was primarily hired to do, not necessarily what
work was done during the survey week. Types of workers include:
Field Workers: Employees engaged in planting, tending and harvesting crops including operation of farm machinery
on crop farms. The Standard Occupation Classification (SOC) codes and titles associated with field workers are 452041: Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products; 45-2091: Agricultural Equipment Operators; 45-2092:
Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery and Greenhouse; 45-2099: Agricultural Workers, All Other; 53-7064:
Packers and Packagers, Hand.
Livestock Workers: Employees tending livestock, milking cows or caring for poultry, including operation of farm
machinery on livestock or poultry operations. SOC codes and titles associated with livestock workers are 45 -2041:
Graders and Sorters, Agricultural Products; 45-2093: Farmworkers, Farm, Ranch, and Aquacultural Animals; 452099: Agricultural Workers, All Other; 53-7064: Packers and Packagers, Hand.
Supervisors: Hired managers, range foremen, crew leaders, etc. SOC codes and titles associated with supervisors are
11-9013: Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers; 45-1011: First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing,
and Forestry Workers.
Other Workers: Employees engaged in agricultural work not included in the other three categories. Bookkeepers
and pilots are examples. SOC codes and titles associated with other workers include but are not limited to 45 -2011:
Agricultural Inspectors; 45-2021: Animal Breeders; 37-2012: Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators,
Vegetation.
For more information on the applicable Standard Occupational Classification codes, see “Crosswalk from National
Agricultural Statistics Service Farm Labor Survey to the Standard Occupational Classification System” at the “Surveys
and Programs” page for Farm Labor, on the NASS website (http://www.nass.usda.gov).
Methods of Pay: All wage rates are calculated based on total wages paid and total hours worked during the survey
reference week. Wages paid other than hourly (bi-weekly, monthly, etc.) are converted to an hourly basis prior to
summarization. Wages paid by piece rate (per quantity of produce picked, etc.) are also converted to an hourly basis.
Base Hours: Base hours are the number of hours worked, for which base wages are paid. Base hours are used in the
calculation of base wage rates beginning in year 2020. Base hours were not collected prior to year 2020.
Gross Wage Rate: Gross wages are the total amount paid to workers before taxes and other deductions; the rate is per
hour. The worker’s share of social security and unemployment insurance is included, but the employer’s share is excluded.
Gross wages may include in-kind payments (e.g., agricultural product like a side of beef, bushels of grain, etc.) provided
in lieu of wages for work done. The value of perquisites is excluded from gross wages.

32

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Base Wage Rate: Base wages are gross wages less regularly paid bonuses, overtime pay, or other incentive pay.
Beginning in year 2020, the rate is per base hour. In 2019, the rate is per gross hour. For employees receiving incentive
pay such as piece rate pay or commissions, base wages are the minimum amount guaranteed.
Perquisites: Benefits, such as cash bonuses, housing, or meals, provided to an employee in addition to pay are included in
perquisites. Wage rates published in this release do not include the value of these benefits.
Term of Employment: The length of time during the year the farm operator expects to employ those workers who were
on the payroll during the survey week.
Agricultural Service: Any farm-related service performed on a farm or ranch on a contract or fee basis. This primarily
includes activities performed by contract workers on fruit, vegetable, or berry operations. It also includes custom work,
veterinarian work, artificial insemination, sheep shearing, milk testing, or any other farm-related activity performed on a
farm or ranch on a “fee per service” basis. The agricultural services component has been discontinued from the Farm
Labor Survey.
Contract Labor: Contract workers are paid by a crew leader, contractor, buyer, processor, cooperative, or other person
who has an oral or written agreement with a farmer/rancher. Pruning, thinning, weeding or harvesting of fruit, vegetable
or berry crops are examples. A machine is not a part of the service activity provided by the contractor. The Farm Labor
Survey excludes measures of contract labor.
Custom Work: Work performed by machines and labor hired as a unit. Hay baling, combining, corn or cotton picking,
spraying, fertilizing, and laser leveling are examples of custom work when the equipment is included in the service
activity. The Farm Labor Survey excludes measures of custom labor.
Type of Farm (or Ranch): An operation is classified in the farm type which accounts for the largest portion of the total
gross value of sales for its agricultural production.
Types of farms broken out in this publication are:
Field Crops: A farm producing wheat, rice, corn, soybeans, barley, dry beans, rye, sorghum, cotton, popcorn,
tobacco, or other such crops.
Other Crops: A farm producing vegetables, melons, berry crops, grapes, tree nuts, citrus fruits, deciduous tree
fruits, avocados, dates, figs, olives, nursery, or greenhouse crops. This category also includes farms producing
potatoes, sugar crops, hay, peanuts, hops, mint, and maple syrup.
Livestock or Poultry: A farm producing cattle, hogs, sheep, goats, milk, chickens, eggs, turkeys, or animal
specialties such as furs, fish, honey, etc.
Gross Value of Sales: This includes all income during a year from the sale of crops, livestock, dairy, poultry, or other
related agricultural products, including the landlord's share and the value of products produced under contract. When
commodities are placed under CCC loan, they are considered sold.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

33

Survey Methodology
Survey Procedures: The NASS Agricultural (Farm) Labor Survey is normally conducted semi-annually in April and
October, in all surveyed states except California. During the April data collection, data for both January and April
reference weeks are collected. During the October data collection, data for both July and October reference weeks are
collected. The quarterly reference week is the Sunday to Saturday period which includes the 12th day of the month. For
California, collection of these data is currently conducted on a quarterly basis, as part of the California Employment
Development Department monthly labor program. Due to the suspension and subsequent reinstatement of the U.S. level
survey, data collection for the October 2020 Farm Labor Survey was conducted December 10, 2020 to January 21, 2021.
The reference periods remained the Sunday through Saturday weeks that included the 12 th day of the months of July 2020
and October 2020.
The target population for the Farm Labor Survey program is all operations which meet the definition of a farm or ranch.
An optimal sample is selected in each state. Beginning with the July and October 2019 survey, the sample size was
increased to approximately 38,000 operations to accommodate program expansion. The Farm Labor Survey is a multiple
frame survey, incorporating samples from both the NASS list and area frames to ensure adequate coverage.
Farms and ranches on the list frame are sampled through a hierarchical stratified design, with strata based on measures of
size. Those operations with associated control data indicating peak numbers of workers are stratified based on these
values, and those expected to employ large numbers of workers (higher peak number values) are selected with the greatest
frequency. Farms on the list frame which do not have peak worker control data are stratified and sampled based on farm
value of sales. Farms stratified by farm value of sales are selected at a lower frequency.
In order to provide coverage of farms not currently part of the NASS list frame, a second sample is drawn consisting of
segments of land selected from the NASS area frame. The area frame contains all land in the state and, as such, is
complete. The land is stratified according to intensity of agriculture using satellite imagery. The land in each stratum is
divided into segments of roughly one square mile. Segments are optimally allocated and sampled to effectively measure
crops and livestock. The sampled segments are fully enumerated in June. All farms and ranches found operating tracts in
these segments are checked to see if they are included in the list frame hired labor population. The farms and ranches that
are not included in the list frame labor population, called nonoverlap tracts, are sampled for the Farm Labor Survey so that
the target population is completely represented. The area frame component is enumerated during each semi-annual Farm
Labor Survey data collection period along with the list sample.
Most respondents are first contacted through self-administered mailed questionnaires, which can be completed either by
hand or securely online. Nonresponse to the mail and online request is followed-up by telephone enumeration. All
manually completed survey questionnaires are returned to the NASS National Operations Center, where they are visually
reviewed and key entered.
Throughout the data collection process, steps are taken to minimize the impact of nonsampling errors such as reporting,
recording, and editing errors. These steps include questionnaire testing, comprehensive interviewer training, validation,
and verification of processing systems, application of detailed computer edits, and evaluation of the data via analysis
tools.
Estimating Procedures: Nonresponse adjustment is necessary to account for producers who refuse to participate in the
survey, cannot be located during the data collection period, or who submit incomplete reports. These nonrespondents must
be accounted for if accurate estimates of farm labor are to be made. For the Farm Labor Survey, nonrespondents are
accounted for by adjusting the weights of the respondents. The adjustment occurs by stratum as all strata represent
homogeneous groupings of similar sized farms. The adjustment is performed by individual item on the questionnaire so
adjustments for item nonresponse (partial reports) and unit nonresponse (refusals and inaccessibles) are done in a single
calculation.
For estimation of data items, point estimates called direct expansions are calculated by multiplying the reported value by
the final adjusted weight (initial sampling weight adjusted for nonresponse) and summing to a stratum total. A variance

34

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

estimate is also computed at the stratum level. The nonoverlap tracts are treated as an additional stratum. Totals and
variances are additive across strata to form state level point estimates.
Ratio estimates are also computed for many items. For example, wage rates are calculated as the ratio of total wages to
total hours worked. Ratio estimates use the reweighted estimator described above for the numerator and denominator
direct expansions. Both the numerator and denominator must be usable in order for that record to be used in the ratio
estimator.
The number of hired workers, average hours worked, average wage rate data, and all associated sub-items are summarized
from the dataset. Because an identical data collection instrument (questionnaire) and follow-up interview are used for all
states, as well as identical editing, analysis, and summarization processes, state data can be summarized and regional and
national survey point estimates computed. For estimation purposes, point estimates are adopted as survey indications for
all data items. The summary results provide multiple direct and ratio indications for each data series being estimated. The
results also provide information used to assess the performance of the current survey and evaluate the quality of the
survey indications. NASS Regional Field Offices review the state level indications and submit state level comments
documenting state specific concerns to NASS headquarters. NASS headquarters completes the regional and national level
summaries, which utilize the same estimators and produce the same indications as the state level summaries.
All estimates are set at NASS headquarters. Starting in 2020, model-based estimates of hired workers, average hours
worked, average wage rates, and the associated sub-items are produced to support the NASS estimation processes.
Statistical models are mathematical equations that relate quantities of interest (in this case, number of workers, hours, and
wage rates) to a set of important input factors. The models used by NASS relate the direct expansions obtained from the
current Farm Labor Survey to previous year, same quarter official estimates. This modeling approach improves the
precision of the resulting estimates. In particular, estimates in publication cells derived from few reports become more
precise than estimates derived from the survey alone.
For the final step in the estimation process, NASS assembles a panel of statisticians to serve as the Agricultural Statistics
Board (ASB) for the Farm Labor Survey. The Farm Labor ASB reviews both the modeled and survey indications and
establishes all final, official estimates for the Farm Labor Survey program. Since larger sample sizes yield more precise
results, the ASB employs the “top-down” approach by determining the national level estimates first and reconciling the
state, regional, and national numbers for all estimates including number of hired workers, average hours worked, average
wage rates, and associated sub-items. As part of the semi-annual process, the ASB also considers revised indications and
issues revisions of previously published estimates where appropriate. Additionally, the ASB reviews the annual average
estimates for the November publication, which are summarized from the final regional and national level estimates for
each of the four quarters. Through examining indications across states and regions, re-examining outliers, and considering
state level comments, the ASB is able to establish all final estimates according to both local conditions and regional and
national conditions and trends.

Farm Labor Survey Reinstatement: The suspension and subsequent reinstatement of the October 2020 Farm Labor
Survey changed the maximum recall period (i.e., the time between when agricultural producers first have data available,
and when the survey is conducted) for the survey from approximately three months to approximately six months. NASS
was unable to research what effect, if any, the extended recall period had on data quality. However, NASS conducts other
data collections with longer recall periods (such as the annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey and the
quinquennial Census of Agriculture have recall periods of up to a year).
External Factors: In addition to the delay in data collection for the October 2020 Farm Labor Survey, all NASS data
collections taking place after approximately mid-March 2020 were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In March 2020,
NASS stopped face-to-face (in person) data collection and began decentralizing its telephone data collection centers. This
meant that telephone interviewers who normally worked in central facilities, now conducted interviews from their homes
using NASS-issued equipment. It also meant that interviewers who normally conducted in-person interviews, now also
conducted telephone interviews from their homes. NASS was unable to research what effect, if any, this change in
enumerator practice had on data quality.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
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35

October 2020 Farm Labor Survey Metrics: The table below provides a variety of information, including sample sizes
and response rates, for the four most recent instances of the Farm Labor Survey. The information is intended to provide
data users with data to compare the performance of the October 2020 Farm Labor Survey with other instances of the
survey. Any differences may be a result of collecting the data in December instead of October, NASS and non-NASS
factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, random error, or other unidentified sources.
Farm Labor Survey Sample Sizes and Response Rates – United States: 2017-2020
Item
Farm Labor Survey 1
2017
2018
2019
2020
Apr
Oct
Apr
Oct
Apr
Oct
Apr
Dec
Sample size
12,487
12,601
10,421
10,993
30,195
35,948
34,970
34,890
Reference
week

Jan

Apr

Jul

Oct

Jan

Apr

Jul

Oct

Jan

Apr

Jul

Oct

Jan

Apr

Jul

Oct

Response rate 54.8 55.4 55.3 55.7 53.8 54.0 52.8 53.1 51.2 51.1 51.4 51.5 54.4 54.2 43.9 43.9
Refusal rate
15.4 14.9 15.6 15.2 15.1 14.9 13.9 13.6 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.1 13.8 14.0 13.5 13.5
Inaccessible
26.7 26.7 26.0 26.0 27.8 27.8 28.9 28.9 30.8 30.8 31.4 31.4 28.2 28.2 38.7 38.7
rate
Outcome for
Active Sample
Mail
Telephone
Face-to-face
Web
Other 2

18.0
39.8
14.3
2.7
25.2

18.0
39.8
14.3
2.7
25.2

17.6
42.5
15.0
1.6
23.3

17.6
42.5
15.0
1.6
23.3

19.3
38.8
13.1
1.8
27.0

19.3
38.8
13.1
1.8
27.0

18.8
37.4
12.0
2.7
29.1

18.8 20.5 20.5 19.1 19.1 22.1 22.1 17.4 17.4
37.4 35.5 35.5 34.2 34.2 44.5 44.5 36.4 36.4
12.0 8.9 8.9 10.3 10.3 1.9 1.9 0.8 0.8
2.7 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.4 6.1 6.1 4.5 4.5
29.1 31.5 31.5 33.0 33.0 25.4 25.4 40.9 40.9

Overall
10.3
11.8
11.5
13.2
7.9 3
8.1
Not
7.3
average
available 4
number of
dialing
attempts
1
The Farm Labor Survey is conducted twice a year, typically in April and October. Each survey instance collects data for
two reference weeks. The survey conducted in April collects data for January and April, and the survey conducted in
October (or December in 2020) collects data for July and October.
2
Other consists of fax responses, office holds, and inaccessible sampled operations.
3
The decision was made in 2019 to limit call attempts to 10 as additional calling did not increase response rates
significantly and as a cost savings measure.
4
Due to covid precautions, April 2020 data collection was done by field enumerators instead of through centralized call
centers.
NASS encountered several data collection challenges for the 2020 October Farm Labor Survey. One challenge was
balancing resources between the Farm Labor Survey and several other large surveys that took place in the DecemberJanuary time period. Collectively, these surveys stressed NASS’s Data Collection Centers, and possibly contributed to
lower-than-desired response rates across all surveys. In addition, multiple federal holidays posed the typical challenges of
being able to contact producers and recruiting enumerators to work. In addition to enumerator challenges, NASS received
several reports of United States Postal Service (USPS) delays, resulting in either delays in producers receiving Farm
Labor Survey questionnaires, or NASS receiving completed questionnaires.
NASS received several comments from enumerators that stated producers refused to respond to the 2020 October Farm
Labor Survey due to family situations speculated to be related to the COVID-19 pandemic. While no empirical data are
available related to the efficacy of the longer-than-normal recall period, enumerator comments suggest a mixture of
36

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

impacts. Some enumerator-received comments suggest the longer recall period had no effect, while others suggest it
contributed to respondents having recall problems providing July 2020 data. Collectively, the enumerator-received
comments provide glimpses of respondents’ reactions to the survey, rather than empirical evidence of survey error.
More information on the historical performance of the Agricultural Labor Survey may be found in Farm Labor
Methodology and Quality Measures, available on NASS’s website at
https://www.nass.usda.gov/Publications/Methodology_and_Data_Quality/Farm_Labor/index.php. The Farm Labor
Methodology and Quality Measures for the October 2020 Farm Labor Survey will be published in mid-March 2021.
Revision Policy: Farm labor statistics are subject to revision semi-annually and annually. Revisions must be supported by
additional data that directly affect the level of the estimate. Farm labor data for July and October 2019 and April 2020
were subject to revision with this report.

Farm Labor (February 2021)
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37

Information Contacts
Listed below are the commodity statisticians in the Environmental, Economics, and Demographics Branch of the National
Agricultural Statistics Service to contact for additional information. E-mail inquiries may be sent to [email protected]
Tony Dorn, Chief, Environmental, Economics, and Demographics Branch .................................................. (202) 720-6146
Bruce Boess, Head, Economics Section ........................................................................................................ (202) 720-4447
Stephanie Brennan – Farm Computer Use, Farm Production Expenditures ............................................ (202) 690-0392
Kuan Chen – Prices, Prices Indexes, Parity Prices.................................................................................. (202) 690-3347
Doug Farmer – Chemical Use, Land Values........................................................................................... (202) 690-3229
Zoe Johnson – Cash Receipts, Farm Production Expenditures ............................................................... (202) 720-5446
Michael Mathison – Cash Rents, Farms, Land in Farms, Grazing Fees .................................................. (202) 720-3243
Max Reason – Prices Received Indexes, Parity Prices, Prices Paid Indexes ........................................... (202) 720-8844
Theresa Varner – Farm Labor ................................................................................................................ (202) 690-3231

38

Farm Labor (February 2021)
USDA, National Agricultural Statistics Service

Access to NASS Reports
For your convenience, you may access NASS reports and products the following ways:
 All reports are available electronically, at no cost, on the NASS web site: www.nass.usda.gov
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 Cornell’s Mann Library has launched a new website housing NASS’s and other agencies archived reports. The
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For more information on NASS surveys and reports, call the NASS Agricultural Statistics Hotline at (800) 727-9540,
7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. ET, or e-mail: [email protected]
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