HPD 2023 NYCHVS Questionnaire Development and Testing (1)

HPD 2023 NYCHVS Questionnaire Development and Testing (1).docx

2023 New York City Housing and Vacancy Survey

HPD 2023 NYCHVS Questionnaire Development and Testing (1)

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NYCHVS 2023 Instrument:

Questionnaire Development and Testing


March 2022























WORKING DRAFT. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY.


The views presented here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the City of New York.

Table of Contents


Background on the NYCHVS 2020+ Redesign Process 2

The 2021 NYCHVS 9

The 2023 NYCHVS 10

Questionnaire Guide 11

Front 12

Occupied Interview 18

Housing Quality 38

Household Composition 56

Residential History 69

Renter Costs 85

Owner Costs 103

Utilities 123

Public Benefits and Coverage 129

Income and Employment 135

Personal Debt 165

COVID 185

Education 191

Disability 198

Veterans 207

Race / Ethnicity 209

Nativity 218

Vacant Interview 225

URE Interview 238

Back 247

Additional Details on Survey Logic 250

Fills 250

Index of questions asked in NYCHVS 2020+ 253



Background on the NYCHVS 2020+ Redesign Process


The NYCHVS has collected key data on the New York City housing stock and its resident population since 1965. There were major revisions to the questionnaire in 1991, but only minor changes to content were made during the subsequent ten survey cycles, with a few items added, removed, or otherwise altered from one cycle to the next. In advance of the 2020+ survey cycle a redesign was initiated. The NYCHVS was conducted in 2021 (with modifications to allow for a specialized module on COVID-19) and will be conducted again in 2023. The questionnaire documentation below details all questions in the 2023 NYCHVS, as well as the testing and development conducted as part of the 2020+ redesign.


At the conclusion of the 2017 NYCHVS, a comprehensive review was conducted to identify opportunities to increase the value of the survey for current and future generations of users. This review was completed by Sponsor staff at the NYC Department of Housing Preservation and Development and incorporated feedback from conversations with more than two dozen organizations, including NYCHVS users at other NYC agencies, non-profits, and academic institutions as well as ongoing conversations with multiple divisions within the United States Census Bureau.


Some of the key findings and recommendations include the following:


  • Researchers rely on NYCHVS data to understand the current state of housing and how key aspects of the stock have changed over time; the survey should continue to collect key measures, including rental costs, rent burden, and maintenance deficiencies and facilitate estimates of these measures across different types of housing (e.g., rent stabilized units, market rental units, public housing).

  • The NYCHVS is the primary source of comprehensive information on rent controlled and rent stabilized tenants; the survey should continue to focus on this subset of the housing stock and resident population and incorporate additional information where possible to understand how this segment of New York City is changing.

  • Previous NYCHVS survey cycles failed to classify affordable housing that was financed as part of various housing plans; this would provide an invaluable source of information on these public investments and fill an important gap in our knowledge base, particularly related to the demographics of current tenants.

  • The NYCHVS facilitates comparisons among different subsets of the population, including by race/ethnicity, nativity, age, and household composition; the survey should collect information on a range of protected characteristics to facilitate analysis of issues related to fair housing.

  • The NYCHVS is a source of information that has, and should, support decision making in various policy domains beyond housing; to the extent possible, the survey should expand the types of questions it collects to support more coordinated policymaking, including information on household costs, ability to meet critical expenses, and debt/assets.

  • The NYCHVS is uniquely positioned to gather information on the mobility of residents, both within and between neighborhoods; to the extent possible, the survey should facilitate analysis of housing search behavior, residential instability, changes in household composition over time, and the push and pull factors that result in residential moves.

  • Although the NYCHVS was not designed to produce neighborhood- or small area-estimates, many users rely on the survey data to produce metrics by “Community District” (the smallest geographic identifier in the survey is sub-borough area, a close proxy for CD); to the extent possible, the NYCHVS should facilitate more reliable neighborhood-level estimates and gather key metrics about the neighborhood in which sample units are located.


Based on these recommendations, as well as observation of 2017 field operations and discussion with survey methodologists at the Census Bureau and elsewhere, the NYCHVS Sponsor team identified several key areas of focus for the 2020+ NYCHVS redesign effort. These included: sample design, field operations, use of administrative records, data processing, and questionnaire content.


This document contains information on the questionnaire development and testing for the 2020+ questionnaire, as well as edits, additions, and removals that were made for the 2023 questionnaire. In the sections that follow, we provide an overview of how content areas were selected, the process for selecting candidate questions, the process used to pretest survey content, and the final recommendations related to question phrasing, answer choices, use of flash cards, scripting, and survey logic.



  1. Identifying New Content Areas


Initial suggestions for new content emerged from conversations with stakeholder groups and long-time users of the NYCHVS. Each suggested topic was assessed based on several criteria, including the value it would provide to the general research community as well as policymakers, whether it was a topic that would retain relevance for years to come, whether the NYCHVS was an appropriate source given its sample design and scope, and whether the topic would contribute to expanded analysis of the housing stock and housing needs of New Yorkers. The NYCHVS Sponsor team also evaluated if there was an existing community of users that would make immediate and impactful use of the new content, if there was an alternate source that already collected data of sufficient quality and precision, and whether information on the topic could be adequately captured through the survey without undue burden to respondents. The NYCHVS Sponsor team was responsible for assessing new content areas and determining which merited further research and consideration.


Seven new content areas met these criteria:

  • Housing search

  • Residential (in)stability

  • Debt

  • Financial (in)security

  • Household costs used to calculate alternate poverty measure(s)

  • Additional protected characteristics, including sexual orientation, gender identity, veteran status, and disability

  • Perceptions of neighborhood quality and safety



  1. Expanding Existing Content Areas


Review of the legacy questionnaire revealed opportunities to expand or refine existing content areas. Priority was given to topics that comprise the NYCHVS’s key measures on housing costs, rent burden, and housing quality. Emphasis was placed on measures that would better reflect the current state of housing conditions in New York City and/or those that would provide a new foundation for future time series as the City continues to evolve.


Adding questions to other topics was limited to items where there was a clear need to improve accuracy, such as asking a question about each person in the household rather than asking it only of the single respondent or “householder.”


Topics that merited expansion included:

  • Rental costs and payments

  • Owner costs

  • Utility costs

  • Maintenance deficiencies

  • Unit and building amenities

  • Delay of critical expenses

  • Residential history

  • Household composition

  • Nativity



  1. Editing Legacy Questions


Every attempt was made to retain core questions that were fielded in the past; however, review of the legacy questionnaire identified several areas where edits to existing items were deemed either appropriate or necessary.


Expert review identified opportunities to reduce respondent burden by either replacing an item with data from administrative records or rephrasing the question to verify administrative records rather than rely solely on self-report. Items that fell into this category include the type of building (e.g., cooperative or single-family home), number of units in the building, presence of an elevator, and whether the building had converted to condo or coop while the respondent was in residence.


Additional edits were deemed important to improve the validity of data collected or minimize item non-response. Some items were dated such that respondents had difficulty answering the question as intended or were culturally insensitive (e.g., place of birth answers included “Korea” without reference to country names, or “Africa” without any further choice of country or region). In other cases, answer choices intended to be mutually exclusive were not (e.g., exterminator service used “irregularly” or “only when needed”). Some questions were written in such a way that made it impossible to translate consistently into other languages (“Are these [kitchen] facilities for the exclusive use of this household or are they also for use by another household?”). Testing revealed other issues, such as the use of terminology that was difficult for respondents to understand (e.g., “hot and cold piped water” or “six consecutive hours”) and questions that were difficult for field representatives to read verbatim due to length. Other legacy items were replicated from surveys that have since updated their own content (e.g., income and employment).


For all of these reasons, some legacy questions and/or answers were flagged for editing. Although the NYCHVS Sponsor team recognizes that even minor changes to question phrasing may produce differences in the data that will result in a possible break in the time series from past survey cycles, the decision was made that the benefits of doing so now during a redesign outweighed the costs to data quality that would result from continuing to field questions into the future.



  1. Question Development


In some cases, the NYCHVS Sponsor team received specific suggestions for questions from stakeholders or subject matter experts. In other cases, the team reviewed questionnaires from other surveys to identify candidate questions. In all cases, priority was given to validated questions from other Census Bureau surveys first (e.g., AHS, ACS, SIPP), followed by other widely used sources such as national surveys (e.g., PSID, Fragile Families, GSS), specialized surveys that are commonly used by the research community (e.g., PHDCN, MARS), or relevant New York City surveys that have been fielded successfully (e.g., CHS, HANS). This same process was used for both new content areas as well as expanded questions within an existing NYCHVS module.


When possible, source questions were used in their original form; however, minor edits were sometimes required to facilitate consistency of translation across target languages. (See below for discussion of the decision to implement numeric scales in place of categorical Likert-type answer choices.)


For content where either no existing question(s) could be found or where the existing body of survey questions did not provide a viable option, new questions were drafted by the NYCHVS Sponsor team and refined through a combination of expert review and testing.


This process was also used for edits and additions to the 2023 questionnaire. When possible, the NYCHVS Sponsor team also built on feedback and experience from the 2021 fielded questionnaire.




  1. Pretest Methodology


In 2019, the Sponsor team at HPD conducted successive rounds of pretesting for the revised NYCHVS questionnaire that would be used in 2020+. Two types of testing were conducted: intercept surveys and field tests. These pretest activities were designed to complement review done by subject matter experts at HPD, including the survey translation team, focus groups conducted with hard to reach populations, and cognitive interviewing done by the Center for Behavioral Science Methods (CBSM) at the Census Bureau.


Information from the pretests was used to refine question wording, answer choices, and scripting as well as the sequencing of survey items within a given module. Often, the same module was tested multiple times as questions were rephrased or reordered. Tests often utilized a split-panel in which two (or more) variations were tested at the same time to determine which worked better. Pretesting was also used to determine if any item did not perform sufficiently to be included in the final questionnaire. New questions that were tested but ultimately excluded from the final instrument are not discussed in this working paper.


Each test included a subset of survey items that were administered in a face-to-face setting along with scripted probes that asked participants to provide qualitative information on their answers or secondary information that was used to assess the quality of answers provided. Some probes were asked concurrently, that is, after respondents answer specific questions; others were asked retrospectively, that is, at the end of the questionnaire section. Interviewers were able to ask probing questions at their discretion, based on respondent answers and behaviors, to develop a more comprehensive understanding of potential problems with questions or answers. Probes borrowed from cognitive interviewing techniques and were developed to assess potential problems with respondent comprehension, information retrieval/recall, judgment/estimation, and response selection/decision making.


Information captured included participant answers to the tested questions, qualitative notes from the interviewer during the test, and detailed summary of findings and recommendations gathered after the conclusion of testing from the interviewers, including debriefs conducted with the interview team and senior staff from the NYCHVS. Basic demographic data were collected to gather information on the breadth of participants reached. Tests were conducted in-person by experienced field staff who have conducted fieldwork in New York City and overseen by Sponsor staff who have experience in survey methodology and field operations.


All tests were conducted anonymously, such that no personally identifiable information was collected from any participant.


  1. Intercept Surveys


A total of 325 intercept survey interviews were conducted across six sets of intercept surveys, including one or more days of testing on each of the following topics:


  • Neighborhood safety, disorder, and amenities

  • Quality of kitchen and bathroom facilities

  • Sexual orientation and gender identity (SO/GI)

  • Preferred pronoun usage

  • Answer scales (Likert-type versus numeric)

  • Income and employment


For each intercept survey, two or more trained interviewers (R&E staff) were sent to a specified public location with printed forms and clipboards where they approached individuals in a public space and recruited them to participate. Though they worked in close physical proximity to one another, each interviewer recruited and interviewed respondents separately. R&E staff approached a non-random sampling of passers-by; potential participants were asked to give ten minutes of their time to help improve our survey. A recruitment pamphlet was provided that summarized the NYCHVS, the activity they were being asked to participate in, and how the information would be used. It also stated that the data would remain anonymous.

Intercept surveys were conducted in order to collect a meaningful number of responses in a relatively short time period with minimal resources. Replication of the same small number of survey items many times in quick succession gave interviewers the chance to gain expertise in administering the questions, develop an intuitive sense for what did or did not work, and generate recommendations quickly. The larger number of completed surveys over a short time period also facilitated a split panel approach whereby two or more versions of questions could be tested simultaneously. Intercept surveys were conducted in English and Spanish.


  1. Field Tests


A total of 150 short-form interviews were completed at subjects’ homes using a Computer-Assisted Personal Interview; this approach was intended to mimic how the NYCHVS is fielded by the Census Bureau but with only a limited battery of questions.


Field test modules included:


  • Building and unit characteristics

  • Housing quality

  • Public benefits

  • Rental costs

  • Household roster

  • Income and employment

  • Demographics


Individual modules were programmed, tested, and loaded onto a tablet to be used by R&E staff. Additional questions from other modules, such as the household roster, were incorporated to the extent they were needed for survey logic. Field test locations were chosen to survey housing types that are representative of the buildings that will be included in the 2020+ NYCHVS, including Mitchell-Lama, Public Housing (New York City Housing Authority/NYCHA), Rent Stabilized buildings, and Cooperatives.


Field interviewers worked in pairs, knocking on doors of units in selected buildings. If a person below age 18 came to the door, R&E staff asked to speak with an adult. Potential respondents were asked to give ten minutes of their time to help improve the survey. If they agreed, interviews were conducted on the spot at respondents’ homes. A recruitment pamphlet was provided that summarized the NYCHVS, the activity they were being asked to participate in, and how the information would be used. It also stated that the data would remain anonymous.


Field tests were used to assess the flow of an entire module and verify appropriate survey logic. Feedback from these tests included how well the module could be administered in CAPI format, whether more or less scripting should be included, and whether additional “as needed” information should be provided to field representatives, such as optional definitions for concepts or guidance for administering individual items. R&E staff also provided suggestions for field representative training where appropriate.


  1. Additional Testing and Review


Pretesting complemented other forms of testing and review, including expert review by subject matter experts at HPD and elsewhere; full-length test interviews to assess content, survey logic, and timing; focus groups with hard to reach populations; and two rounds of cognitive interviewing conducted in New York City by the Census Bureau’s Center for Behavioral Science Methods (CBSM). All questionnaire content also underwent an advance translation process whereby translators reviewed English content and made recommendations on edits that would improve the quality and consistency of translations. Reports on the cognitive interviewing and advance translation process used in the NYCHVS are available separately.


The final questionnaire content presented here relies on the combination of all these sources of pretesting and review, with specific sources and recommendations noted where appropriate.



  1. Universal Recommendations


Pretesting resulted in several across-the-board recommendations that impacted multiple questions, including both legacy and new items.


  1. The term “household”


Pretesting revealed substantial variation in the living situations of participants as well as the terminology used by individuals who shared a home. Many legacy items refer to “household” to describe all individuals who live in the sampled unit, yet many of the participants did not understand this concept. This was particularly true for roommate situations and where two or more sub-families resided in the same unit. People living alone often did not understand that the term “household” referred to only them. This conceptual confusion is exacerbated when translating into multiple languages where “household” does not have a direct translation (e.g., Spanish) or when the term does not have the same meaning in another culture (e.g., Bengali).


  • All questions that referenced “household” will be updated to have a fill based on household size. If there is only one occupant, “household” will be replaced with “you;” if there are two or more occupants, “household” will be replaced with “you and the people who live with you” or equivalent phrasing depending on context.


  1. Locational specificity


Many legacy questions refer to “this apartment or house;” however, not every NYCHVS interview takes place in the respondent’s home. Field tests underscored participants’ sensitivity for privacy and field interviewers noted that even when an interview is conducted at a sampled building, participants may feel more comfortable completing the survey at a different location, such as a community room. In 2017, many NYCHVS interviews were completed on the phone, or had a follow-up component that was administered by telephone; this possibility should be maintained for future survey cycles to ensure flexibility in field operations.


  • Where applicable, all questions should be rephrased from “this” to “your” or “the” apartment or house, with apartment or house being filled based on survey logic for the type of residence.



  1. Reference periods


Many items include a reference period, but expert review identified inconsistencies in phrasing across questions (e.g., “three months” or “90 days”) as well as shifting reference periods within a given module that added cognitive load. For example, the legacy maintenance deficiency questions reference “this winter,” “last 90 days,” “last month,” and “last 12 months” within the span of twelve questions. Moreover, “this winter” is the reference period for heating breakdowns used for interviews completed in January as well as May. In other instances, the reference period is only implied (“What is the monthly rent [this month]?”).


  • To preserve the time series where possible, reference periods should remain the same but should utilize consistent phrasing. Based on pretesting, preference should be given to “last year” rather than “last 12 months” and “three months” rather than “90 days.”


  • When multiple reference periods are used in a given module, the ordering of questions should be adjusted so as to go from longest to shortest time period, or vice versa, rather than asking about longer, then shorter, then longer timeframes.


Pretesting showed that some new items are highly variable over time, such as rental payments and amount charged by the landlord.


  • To improve accuracy, reference periods should be added to support respondent understanding of the question where appropriate.



  1. Scaled Answer Choices


Several new items identified for possible inclusion used standard Likert-type scales as answer choices (e.g., strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree); however, there are known challenges to translating such scales into multiple languages. These include 1) difficulties in translating words and concepts that are unique to a specific language; 2) developing equivalent intensity modifiers; and 3) ensuring idiomatic quality. Furthermore, researchers may need to modify the translation of response scales to account for known measurement error within the culture, such as bias introduced by certain response styles. Translations also may shift between unipolar (e.g., from “not at all agree” to “strongly” agree”) and bipolar response scales (e.g., from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”), which may lead to differential response distributions across languages.


One alternative is numeric scales, whereby respondents are asked to rate their answer on a scale from x to y, with labels provided for end points and (optionally) a mid-point. Although cultures differ in their degree of numeracy, which numbers are perceived as lucky or unlucky, and familiarity with different rating scales (e.g., 1-5, 1-6, 1-10, etc.), discussions with the NYCHVS translation team and pretesting concluded that this was the best approach available. Pretesting of difference numeric scales determined that the most widely accepted approach would be a 1-10 scale, with multiple labels for those that preferred qualitative scalars.

  • All scaled answers will be converted to 1-10 scales, with as many label options as possible presented in visual (flash card) form.

For example, a 5-point Likert-type scale of strongly agree to strongly disagree would be converted as follows:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Strongly Disagree > Neither Disagree/Agree > Strongly Agree


The 2021 NYCHVS


The timing of the 2021 field period presented the Sponsor team with the unique challenge and opportunity of collecting data during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City. To speak to this time and the effects of the pandemic, the Sponsor team developed an additional specialized module on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The module included questions on:

  • Residential Mobility and Household Composition Change during the beginning of the pandemic

  • Income and Employment during the pandemic, including frontline workers

  • Remote learning and childcare

  • Comorbidities and COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization

  • Impacts on financial well-being


These questions provide unique data on impacts of the pandemic in NYC. To allow for this new module while still limiting respondent burden, the Sponsor team chose not to field some of the questions from the 2020+ redesign. Most of these items have been added back into the 2023 questionnaire.



The 2023 NYCHVS


Based on the field experience of administering the 2021 questionnaire and review of data collected selected refinements to content and question sequence were implemented for the 2023 questionnaire. These included discontinuing secondary respondent interviews, incorporating select questions administered in the 2021 COVID-19 module into the main questionnaire, and developing a version of the vacant interview designed for respondents in units where occupants have a usual residence elsewhere (URE). Select content for the 2023 NYCHVS underwent expert review by CBSM in 2022 and all content underwent expert review by the NYC HPD Sponsor team.

  • In previous NYCHVS cycles when respondents are unable to provide information about certain household costs or individuals, the NYCHVS Field Representative will seek to obtain contact information for a second respondent in the household and gather additional information from that person at a later time. Data gathered from these secondary interviews did not generally provide substantial additional information beyond what was collected during the first respondent interview. To reduce FR burden and better use limited resources secondary respondent interviews will no longer be conducted in 2023.

  • The 2021 NYCHVS was adapted to include a module on COVID-19. Select questions from this module have been retained and incorporated into the occupied interview to be able to evaluate the continued impacts of the pandemic on New Yorkers

  • Sampled units that have no full-time resident which are referred to by Census as Usual Residence Elsewhere (URE). Historically, through the 2021 cycle, these cases were routed to a Vacant interview path; however, many of the questions in the Vacant interview assume there are no occupants and the experience of asking (and answering) some of these items is awkward for URE cases. Additional questions were added for 2023 so that through this question series we identify UREs early in the screening process and can administer a modified Vacant Interview that uses alternative phrasing or eliminates some questions that would not apply to a URE unit.

  • The 2023 questionnaire also includes additional questions in the front of the questionnaire. These questions are designed to help FRs navigate cases that are known from prior NYCHVS cycles to be challenging—particularly short-term rentals, such as AirBNBs.




Questionnaire Guide


This next section provides information on each question included in the NYCHVS 2020+ questionnaire. It provides background information on the source of the question, edits to the original phrasing, correspondence to legacy items (where appropriate), and survey logic. Each variable is grouped substantively by topic and is presented sequentially from first item to last in the NYCHVS 2020+ questionnaire.


Each question also offers a ‘Don’t Know’ and ‘Refused’ option, which are not shown here. In some cases, universe / survey logic references these values, which are marked as DK and R, respectively.





Front


The following sections outline questions answered by the FR for all sampled units.




Sampled Unit Inputs

Variable name

Data file

Confirm unit

UNIT_FOUND

Occupied, Vacant

Stories in building

STORIES_FRONT

Occupied, Vacant

Units in Building (FR)

UNITS_FRONT

Occupied, Vacant

Floor of unit

UNIT_FLOOR

Occupied, Vacant

Accessibility to elevator

ELEV_NO_STEPS

Occupied, Vacant

Accessibility to unit

UNIT_NO_STEPS

Occupied, Vacant


Is there a housing unit at this address?


[sample address]

A housing unit is any house, townhouse, apartment, single-room, group of rooms, or other location that is used for residential purposes. It can exist within, over, or under a structure that appears to be non-residential or commercial.


1. Yes

2. No

3. Could not find the sample address.

How many stories are in this building?

Enter number of stories ___________

How many units are in the building?

Enter number of units __________

What floor is the unit on?

Enter Floor _________

Is it possible to go from the sidewalk to a passenger elevator without going up or down any steps or stairs?

1. Yes

2. No

Is it possible to go from the sidewalk to this unit without going up or down any steps or stairs?

1. Yes

2. No

Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


UNITS_FRONT


Interviewer Note: Administrative records show that there are [MAF unit count] units in this building. If that seems right, you can answer with that number, otherwise please enter the correct number.


Administration (Universe Description)




UNIT_FOUND

Asked of every sampled unit.


STORIES_FRONT

Asked of every sampled unit.


UNIT_FLOOR

Asked of every sampled unit.


UNITS_FRONT

Asked of every sampled unit.


ELEV_NO_STEPS

Asked of every sampled unit.


UNIT_NO_STEPS

Asked of every sampled unit.


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A

2021 Questionnaire

These questions were unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.


Rationale



Information from the Front of the interview is gathered from the Field Representative prior to the start of an interview. These data are used for survey logic and fills.


Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


Recode Usage



N/A


Interview Details

Item

Variable name

Data file

Staying now


STAY_NOW

Occupied, Vacant

Staying most


STAY_MOST

Occupied, Vacant

Staying some of the time


STAY_SOME

Occupied, Vacant

Occasional residence type


URETYPE

Occupied, Vacant


Is anyone staying at this address right now?

1. Yes
2. No

Is there anyone who stays at this address most of the time, even if they are not staying there now?

1. Yes
2. No

Is there anyone who stays at the address for only part of the year?

1. Yes
2. No

Do the people who sometimes stay at this address have access to the apartment or house 12 months of the year?

1. Yes, they have access all of the time even though they don't live here (URE)
2. No, they only have the apartment for a short period of time (URE)


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

N/A


Administration (Universe Description)




STAY_NOW

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an interview.


STAY_MOST

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an interview.


STAY_SOME

Asked for units when there is not currently anyone staying in the unit and when the respondent reports that there is not anyone who stays in the unit most of the time, or where the respondent reports that they do not know if someone stays for most of the time. ((STAY_NOW=2 and STAY_MOST=2) or STAY_MOST = DK,RF)


URETYPE

Asked of every sampled unit that ((STAY_NOW = 1 and STAY_MOST = 2) or STAY_SOME=1)


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire

These items were not included in the 2021 questionnaire.


Rationale


These questions are newly added to the NYCHVS questionnaire for 2023. These questions are designed to help FRs navigate cases that may be challenging to categorize, particularly short-term rentals. The questions are used to generate a notification with a suggested occupancy status based on the FR’s answers to the questions. The FR the enters the occupancy type of the case based on the sum total of their knowledge and training, as has been done for many cycles of the NYCHVS.



Recode Usage



N/A


Interview Details

Variable name

Data file

Interview Type

OCC_VAC


Respondent (Vacant)

VAC_RESP


Accommodations

INT_ACC


Accommodation Type

INT_ACCTYPE


Proxy Interview

INT_PROXY



Is this an Occupied, Vacant, or Usual Residence Elsewhere (URE) unit?

1. Occupied

2. Vacant

3. Usual Residence Elsewhere (URE)

4. Unable to be determined




Who provided the information for this unit?


Check all that apply.

1. Superintendent

2. Rental office/agent

3. Real estate agent/broker

4. Owner

5. Person staying in the unit

6. Other – Specify




Does the respondent require any modifications such as for low-hearing, low-vision, etc?

1. Yes
2. No

What did you do to accommodate the respondent?

Open ended field

Is this a proxy interview?

1. Yes

2. No

Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A



Administration (Universe Description)




OCC_VAC

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an interview (UNIT_FOUND = 1)




VAC_RESP

Asked of every sampled unit that completes a vacant interview (OCC_VAC=2).




INT_ACC

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an interview.


INT_ACCTYPE

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an interview.


INT_PROXY

Asked of every sampled unit that completes an occupied interview (OCC_VAC=1).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire



Some questions remain unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire, questions that were modified are outlined below:


Is this an occupied or vacant interview?


1. Occupied

2. Vacant

3. Noninterview


Is this a low vision interview?

  1. Yes

  2. No

Rationale



Information from the Front of the interview is gathered from the Field Representative prior to the start of an interview. These data are used for survey logic and fills. Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing.


Answer options for occupancy status were modified to reflect the inclusion of a new URE interview path for 2023.


Questions related to disability accommodations were modified for 2023 to allow for open ended documentation of actions needed and taken. NYCHVS is committed to continually improving the accessibility of the survey instrument for all New Yorkers regardless of disability. For this reason the NYCHVS has expanded questions to allow open ended documentation of any disability accommodations implemented for the interview. Responses to this question will allow the NYCHVS team to learn from the work in the field and be able to adapt future surveys to the types of accommodations needed by respondents.


Recode Usage


N/A

Occupied Interview


The following sections outline questions administered to respondents in units designated as occupied.




Unit Characteristics

Variable name

Data file

Sampled unit type

UNITREF

Occupied


Should I refer to the place you live as an apartment or a house for the rest of this interview?

1. Apartment

2. House

Scripting



Before UNITREF:

I'm going to begin by asking some basic questions about where you live.


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


UNITREF


Interviewer Note: If respondent requests the term "house," but seems to live in a building with other units, clarify with the respondent that questions will only refer to their unit.


Administration (Universe Description)




UNITREF

Asked of every occupied unit. This item is used to fill [apartment/house] throughout rest of interview.


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire

This question was unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.


Rationale



Prior to the 2020+ redesign, subject matter experts recommended asking, rather than assuming, whether the sampled unit should be referred to as an apartment or house. While it is anticipated that most units in buildings with two or more units will be referred to as “apartment,” respondents in conventional 1-4 family homes, particularly owner-occupied units, may think of their units as a “house.” To avoid cognitive dissonance or require Field Representatives to adapt questions on-the-fly, this item asks the explicit preference of the respondent.


Recode Usage


N/A


Size of Unit

Variable name

Data file

Number of bedrooms

BEDROOMS

Occupied

Number of rooms

ROOMS

Occupied


How many bedrooms are in your [apartment/ house]?

Enter number ___________

How many rooms are in your [apartment/ house]? Count each separate room. For example, living rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, and dining rooms.

Enter number ___________


Scripting



N/A




Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


BEDROOMS



If the apartment is a studio, record bedrooms as 0


ROOMS


Do not include bathrooms, hallways, or walk-in closets.

(A room is an enclosed area bounded by ceiling-to-floor walls, one or more of which may contain a door or an open archway.)



Administration (Universe Description)




BEDROOMS

ROOMS

These questions are administered to all respondents in occupied units (a variant is administered to vacant units).


Source(s)

American Housing Survey (AHS) 2017


^thinking_how many bedrooms are there ^in_that_your ^HTYPEFILL?



Enter number _____________


NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


How many rooms are in this apartment (house)?

Do not count bathrooms, porches, balconies, halls, foyers, or half-rooms.




1. One (skip next question)

2. Two

3. Three

4. Four

5. Five

6. Six

7. Seven

8. Eight or more


Of these rooms [in your apartment/house], how many are bedrooms?


1. None

2. One

3. Two

4. Three

5. Four

6. Five

7. Six

8. Seven

9. Eight or more


2021 Questionnaire



This question is unchanged from the 21 questionnaire.



Rationale



The legacy form of these questions asked first how many rooms were in the apartment/house and of these, how many were bedrooms. Pretesting showed that respondents often gave the number of bedrooms as their answer to how many rooms were in the home, correcting their answer when the second question on bedroom count was asked. By reversing the order, it is clearer what is intended when we ask for room count.


The phrasing was altered for 2020+ to facilitate interviews that are completed outside of the sampled unit, replacing “this” with “your.” This has been done in multiple items throughout the NYCHVS 2020+ questionnaire.


Expert review revealed the need for a clear and consistent definition of “room.” Additional text instructs the respondent to “count each separate room.” Field representatives will be trained and have access to the technical definition of room, which is loosely based on the definition used by New York State Homes and Community Renewal (NYSHCR):1

A room is an enclosed area bounded by ceiling-to-floor walls on all sides, one or more of which may contain a door or an open archway. Bathrooms, walk-in closets, and hallways do not count as rooms.

Translation experts identified cultural differences in what was typically considered a “room” (e.g., kitchens may not be counted as a room without explicit instruction to do so). Testing revealed that it may be difficult for respondents to respond to a negative instruction (i.e., “do not count”) as opposed to positive instruction of what they should do. For these reasons, the text was changed from “Do not count bathrooms, porches, balconies, halls, foyers, or half-rooms” to “count each separate room. For example, living rooms, kitchens, bedrooms, and dining rooms.”

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 questionnaire.




Recode Usage



Room count is used in calculating the number of persons per room.




Plumbing Facilities

Variable name

Data file

Number of full bathrooms

FULLBATH_NUM

Occupied

Number of half bathrooms

HALFBATH_NUM

Occupied

Unit shares a bathroom

SHAREDBATH

Occupied

Unit has complete plumbing

COMPLETEBATH

Occupied


How many full bathrooms are in your [apartment/ house]?

Enter number of full bathrooms

___________

How many HALF bathrooms are in your [apartment/ house]?


Enter number of half-bathrooms

___________


Do you share a bathroom with other [apartments] in your building?

1. Yes

2. No

In your [apartment/house], do you have a sink, a toilet, and a bathtub or shower?

1. Yes

2. No

Scripting



N/A



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


FULLBATH_NUM


IF NEEDED: A full bathroom has a sink with running water, a toilet, and a bathtub or shower.


HALFBATH_NUM


IF NEEDED: A half-bathroom has a toilet and sink, but no bathtub or shower.


Administration (Universe Description)




FULLBATH_NUM

HALFBATH_NUM

These items are administered to all respondents in occupied units (a variant is administered to vacant units);


SHAREDBATH

This item is only administered if there are no full bathrooms (FULLBATH_NUM=0) and no half bathrooms (HALFBATH_NUM=0) in the sampled unit and there are at least 2 units in the building (UNITS_FRONT>=2)


COMPLETEBATH


This item is only administered if there are no shared bathroom (SHAREDBATH=2).


Source(s)

American Housing Survey (AHS) 2017


A full bathroom is one that has a sink with running water, a toilet, and either a bathtub or shower. How many full bathrooms are there ^in_that_your home? [Include bathrooms in finished attics or finished basements.]


Enter number _____________



A half-bathroom is one that has either a toilet or a bathtub or a shower. How many half bathrooms are there ^in_that_your home ? [Include bathrooms in finished attics or finished basements.]


Enter number _____________



NYCHVS History

Replaces legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Does this apartment (house) have complete plumbing facilities; that is, hot and cold piped water, a flush toilet, and a bathtub or shower?



1. Yes, has complete plumbing facilities 2. No, has some but not all facilities in

this apartment (house)

3. No plumbing facilities in this apartment (house)


Are these [plumbing] facilities for the exclusive use of this household or are they also for use by another household?


1. For the exclusive use of this household

2. Also for use by another household


2021 Questionnaire



SHAREDBATH and COMPLETEBATH were not fielded in the 2021 questionnaire but were included in the 2020+ redesign. All other questions remain unchanged.



Rationale



Expert review of the legacy form of these questions (complete facilities and exclusive use) identified dated language (i.e., hot and cold piped water, flush toilet) that adds bulk and possible confusion for respondents who may not know what is meant by these terms. The NYCHVS translation team also flagged these questions as difficult to translate verbatim. There were also concerns that respondents in complex living situations may confuse “another household” with other occupants they do not consider to be part of their own household unit (e.g., doubled-up families in a sampled unit may identify some occupants as a different household) or vice versa (family members who occupy another unit that the respondent considers part of the same household). Based on recommendations, these questions were substantially revised to collect equivalent information from this set of more direct questions, including appropriate skips where follow-up is unnecessary.


Edits to the legacy questions presented an opportunity to expand the data collected in the 2020+ NYCHVS to include the count of bathrooms of different types while limiting the revised shared/complete facilities items to a smaller subset of respondents. The item COMPLETEBATH (In your [apartment/house], do you have a sink, a toilet, and a bathtub or shower?) is only administered to those that reported no full or half baths and no shared bathroom; this question is targeted to tenement units that have a bathroom with only a toilet but other plumbing facilities elsewhere in the unit (e.g., a sink and bathtub in the kitchen).


The AHS definition of half-bath was updated to reflect industry definitions such that a room with only a shower or tub is not considered a half-bath.


Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



The combination of these four items is used to determine if a sampled unit has complete plumbing facilities that are for the exclusive use of the household to align conceptually with the legacy items.



Appliances

Variable name

Data file

Has refrigerator

APP_FRIDGE

Occupied

Has stove, oven, cooktop

APP_STOVE

Occupied

Has dishwasher

APP_DISHWASH

Occupied

Has washing machine

APP_WASHMACH

Occupied

Has dryer

APP_DRYER

Occupied

Appliance isn’t working

BROK_APP

Occupied

Refrigerator isn’t working

BROK_FRIDGE

Occupied

Stove, oven, cooktop isn’t working

BROK_STOVE

Occupied

Dishwasher isn’t working

BROK_DISHWASH

Occupied

Washing machine isn’t working

BROK_WASHMACH

Occupied

Dryer isn’t working

BROK_DRYER

Occupied

Unit shares a kitchen

SHAREDKITCH

Occupied

Unit has running water

SINK

Occupied


In your [apartment/ house] do you have a…

refrigerator?

1. Yes

2. No


A stove/oven/cooktop?

1. Yes

2. No


A dishwasher?

1. Yes

2. No


A washing machine?


1. Yes

2. No


A dryer?


1. Yes

2. No


[Is this appliance/Are all of those appliances] working now?

1. Yes

2. No


Which appliances are not working?

1. Refrigerator

2. Stove/Oven/Cooktop

3. Dishwasher

4. Washing machine

5. Dryer



Do you share a kitchen with other apartments in your building?

1. Yes

2. No


In your [apartment/house], do you have a sink with hot and cold running water?

1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


APP_STOVE

APP_DISHWASH

APP_WASHMACH

APP_DRYER


IF NEEDED: In your [apartment/ house] do you have …


APP_STOVE


If respondent only has a hot plate or microwave, mark no for Stove/Oven/Cooktop.


APP_WASHMACH

APP_DRYER


If respondent has a washing machine/dryer combination, enter yes for both washing machine and dryer.


NEW_*

REP_*


If respondent has more than one of a given appliance, pick the main appliance.


BROK_APP

Prompt appliances if necessary. If any part of any appliance is not working, answer No.

BROK_*


Interviewer Note: Prompt appliances if necessary. If any part of Stove/Oven/Cooktop is not working, mark as not working. If washing machine/dryer combination is not working, mark both washing machine and dryer as not working




Administration (Universe Description)




APP_*

These items are administered to all respondents in occupied units (a variant is administered to vacant units).


NEW_*

This item is looped through each appliance (refrigerator, stove/oven/cooktop, dishwasher, washing machine, dryer) (APP_[Appliance]=1).


REP_*

This item is looped through each appliance (refrigerator, stove/oven/cooktop, dishwasher, washing machine, dryer) (APP_[Appliance]=1).



BROK_APP

This item is looped through each appliance (refrigerator, stove/oven/cooktop, dishwasher, washing machine, dryer) (APP_[Appliance]=1).


BROK_*

This item is administered to respondents who reported one or more appliance not working (BROK_APP=1) with filled answer choices based on the APP_*.


SHAREDKITCH

This item is administered if the sampled unit does not have a refrigerator (APP_FRIDGE=0) or stove (APP_STOVE=0).


SINK

This item is administered if the sampled unit does not have a full bathroom (FULLBATH_NUM=0) or half bathroom (HALFBATH_NUM=0) and if the sampled unit does not have a complete bath (COMPLETEBATH=2).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

Replaces legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Does this apartment (house) have complete kitchen facilities? Complete kitchen facilities include a sink with piped water, a range or cookstove, and a refrigerator.


1. Yes has complete kitchen facilities

2. No, has some but not all facilities in this apartment (house)

3. No kitchen facilities in this apartment (house), but facilities available in building

4. No kitchen facilities in this building


Are these [kitchen] facilities for the exclusive use of this household or are they also for use by another household?


1. For the exclusive use of this household

2. Also for use by another household


2021 Questionnaire



None of these questions were fielded in 2021, but all were included as part of the 2020+ redesign.



Rationale



The same issues were identified as in the legacy items for complete plumbing facilities /exclusive use.


Edits to the legacy questions presented an opportunity to expand the data collected in the 2020+ NYCHVS to include the presence of non-essential appliances (i.e., dishwasher and laundry) as well as relative age of appliances and if they are in working order. Stakeholders expressed interest in expanding the data on housing quality collected as part of the NYCHVS to include amenities and improvements as well as maintenance deficiencies.


Recode Usage



These items are used in combination to determine complete kitchen facilities for the exclusive use of the household (a definition used by HUD to determine habitability).





Unit Characteristics

Variable name

Data file

Unit count confirmation (R)

UNIT_CORRECT

Occupied

Unit count correction (R)

UNIT_COUNT

Occupied

Elevator in building (R)

ELEVATOR

Occupied

Unit is in condo or coop

CONDOCOOP

Occupied


My records indicate there are [fill number of units from UNITS_FRONT] apartments in your building. Is that correct?

1. Yes

2. No


How many apartments are in the building?

Enter number of apartments_____


Is there an elevator in your building?

1. Yes

2. No


Is your [apartment/house] a condo or part of a co-op?

1. Yes, a condo

2. Yes, part of a co-op

3. No


Scripting



N/A



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A


Administrative Records


Source

Variable

Description


RPAD

RPAD

RPAD

RPAD

RPAD

Building Table

Building Table

Building Table


BCLASS

CONDON

COOPN

TCLASS

UNITSR

LEGL_CLAS_A_APTS

LEGL_CLAS_B_APTS

DUS


Building Class

Condominium Number

Cooperative Number

Tax Class

Residential Units

Number of Permanent Units

Number of Temporary Units

Number of Permanent and Temporary Units






Administration (Universe Description)




UNIT_CORRECT

This item is administered to all respondents in occupied units.


UNIT_COUNT

This item is administered if the respondent does not agree with the number of residential units identified by the Field Representative (UNIT_CORRECT=2).


ELEVATOR

This item is administered if administrative records on presence of an elevator are not available and if the sampled unit is in a building with more than one unit and more than one story (UNITS_FINAL > 1 and STORIES > 1 and MATCH <> 1).


CONDOCOOP

This item is administered if administrative records on the building class are not available (MATCH<>1).


Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Is this apartment (house) part of a condominium or cooperative building or development?


1. No

2. Yes, a condominium

3. Yes, a cooperative


How many units are in this building?

1 unit without business

1 unit with business

2 units without business

2 units with business

3 units

4 units

5 units

6 to 9 units

10 to 12 units

13 to 19 units

20 to 49 units

50 to 99 units

100 to 199 units

200 or more units


Is there a passenger elevator in this building?

1. Yes

2. No



2021 Questionnaire



These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.



Rationale



In 2021, administrative records were incorporated into this section to reduce respondent burden and streamline the interview. Records are used to ask a respondent to confirm the number of units in the building, which pretesting and expert review found easier than providing a unit count. Records are used where possible to determine unit tenure, i.e., whether a unit is part of a condominium or a cooperative, and the legacy question has been edited to be more easily understood.

Administrative records are used to determine whether there is an elevator in the building. Only if records are unavailable are respondents asked if there is an elevator. 2020+ expert review and pretesting revealed that the phrase “passenger elevator” in the legacy NYCHVS was confusing and was replaced simply with “elevator.”

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



Various sources of information will be used to classify the size of building (number of residential units) as well as presence of one or more passenger elevators.





Tenure (Occupants)

Variable name

Data file

Occupants own coop

OWN_COOP

Occupied

Occupants own condo

OWN_CONDO

Occupied

Occupants own unit

OWN

Occupied



Do you or anyone you live with own shares in the co-op?

1. Yes

2. No, I rent this unit



Do you or anyone you live with own the condo?

1. Yes

2. No, I rent this unit


Do you or anyone you live with own the [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


OWN_COOP



My records show that your [apartment/house] is a co-op.

OWN_CONDO


My records show that your [apartment/house] is a condo.

Administrative Records



Source

Variable

Description




RPAD

RPAD

RPAD

RPAD


bclass

condon

coopn

tclass


Building Class

Condominium Number

Cooperative Number

Tax Class







Administration (Universe Description)




OWN_COOP

This item is asked if administrative records indicate the sampled unit is in a cooperative or if the respondent reported that the unit is in a co-op (COOP=1).


OWN_CONDO

This item is asked if administrative records indicate the sampled unit is in a condominium or if the respondent reported that the unit is in a condo (CONDO=1).


OWN

This item is administered if the respondent reported that the unit is not a condo or part of a cooperative (OWNER=1).



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Is this apartment (house) part of a condominium or cooperative building or development?


1. No

2. Yes, a condominium

3. Yes, a cooperative


Is this apartment (house) owned or being bought by … (reference person) or someone else in this household?


1. Yes

2. No



2021 Questionnaire



These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.



Rationale



In 2021, administrative records were incorporated into this section to reduce respondent burden and streamline the interview. Records are used where possible to determine unit tenure, i.e., whether a unit is part of a condominium or a cooperative, and the legacy question has been edited to be more easily understood. Three separate questions for condos, coops, and other units respectively are used to determine tenant tenure, i.e., whether the resident(s) own(s) the unit to tailor simpler questions to the respondent using administrative records whenever possible.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



Various sources of information will be used to recode the sampled unit’s type (owner or renter of various kinds) as well as the current occupants (renter or owner).






Acquisition of Unit

Variable name

Data file

Occupants inherited unit

INHERIT

Occupied

Occupants rented at conversion

CONVRENT

Occupied

Occupants were successor to lease

SUCCESSOR

Occupied

Successor move in date

SUCCESSOR1971


Occupied




Did you or the owner receive the [apartment/house] as a gift or inheritance, or was it purchased?



1. Gift or inheritance

2. Purchased


Did you or anyone you live with rent the [apartment/house] at the time the building became a condo or co-op?


1. Yes

2. No


Were you or anyone who lives here a successor to someone else's lease?

1. Yes

2. No


Did that person move in on or after July 1 in 1971?

1. Yes, on or after July 1 in 1971
2. No, before July 1 in 1971


Scripting



N/A



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


INHERIT



Interviewer note: If respondent both purchased and inherited the apartment/house, mark "Gift or Inheritance"


SUCCESSOR

IF NEEDED: In some cases, a tenant can inherit the apartment from a family member who either died or permanently left the apartment. In general, one may become the tenant of record (the successor) if they lived there for at least 2 years.


SUCCESSOR1971


Interviewer Note: By that person, we mean the family member who preceded the current tenant.



Administration (Universe Description)




INHERIT

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


CONV_RENT

This item is asked if the sampled unit is rented and is part of a condo or coop (RENTER = 1 and (COOP = 1 or CONDO = 1).


SUCCESSOR

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.




NEWITEM

This item is asked of all renters who were successors on a lease (SUCCESSOR = 1)


Source(s)

American Housing Survey (AHS)


Did ^you_OWNER receive the home as a gift or inheritance or did ^you_OWNER2 purchase it?


1. Gift or inheritance

2. Purchased, bought or built


NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Did . . . (reference person) live here and pay cash rent at the time this building became a condominium or cooperative?


1. Yes

2. No


2021 Questionnaire


SUCCESSOR1971 was not in the 2021 questionnaire. All other questions are unchanged from 2021.





Rationale



As part of the 2020+ redesign, stakeholders requested that the NYCHVS collect information related to housing wealth and facilitate analysis of intergenerational mobility. The NYCHVS replicates the AHS question on whether the current owners inherited the home. A question was added to understand the prevalence of lease successorship in rent stabilized apartments as a parallel in transfer of housing from one generation or family member to another.

Occupancy at time of conversion to condo or coop is an important element in classifying the status of the unit as rent controlled or rent stabilized. Move in date for successor leases is an important element in classifying the status of the unit as rent stabilized, and thus understanding the population in rent stabilized housing. This information will also be used to validate logical edits from other self-reported data and administrative records.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


Recode Usage



This information is used in part to determine the status of the unit, including whether it is subject to rent stabilization or rent control.


Building Owner

Variable name

Data file

Owner lives in building

OWNERBLDG

Occupied




Does the owner or landlord live in your building?

1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A




Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A




Administration (Universe Description)




OWNERBLDG

This item is asked if the current occupants are renters and the sampled unit is not a condo or part of a cooperative and the building has 20 or fewer residential units (RENTER = 1 and COOP = 2 and CONDO = 2 and UNITS_FINAL < 20).


Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Does the owner of this building live in this building?



1. Yes

2. No


2021 Questionnaire

This question is unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.



Rationale



The NYCHVS has historically asked this information about all buildings other than condo and coops, regardless of size. Observations of the 2017 NYCHVS indicated that this question was only appropriate in smaller buildings as occupants of larger residential complexes often did not know the owner / landlord. As part of the 2020+ redesign, stakeholder discussion reinforced the value of this item for distinguishing conventional 1-4 family homes where the owner is present or not as well as landlords that occupy a unit of a small multi-family building.


Expert review and pretesting showed that adding the word “landlord” when asking if the owner lives in the building made it easier for respondents who think about this person as their landlord rather than the building owner.


Recode Usage


N/A


Housing Quality




No Heat and Resolution

Variable name

Data file

Lack of heat

NOHEAT

Occupied

Heating breakdown

NOHEAT_NUM

Occupied

311 for heating breakdown

FIX_311

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_DK

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_TIME

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_NOHELP

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_PAST

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_PRIVACY

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_GOV

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_OWNER

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_FIXED

Occupied

Reasons for not calling 311

RE311_OTHER

Occupied


LAST WINTER, that is from October 2021 through May of 2022, was there a time when you had no heat when you needed it?

1. Yes

2. No

999. Respondent did not live here during [reference period]


How many times was your heat broken for 6 hours or more last winter?

Enter 4 for 4 or more times.



Did you or anyone you live with contact 311 about the heat problem?

1. Yes

2. No


Why didn't anyone contact 311 about the problem?



1. I/We didn't know we could call 311 about the problem

2. I/We didn't have time to deal with 311

3. I/We didn't think 311 would help get the problem fixed

4. I/We had bad experiences with 311 in the past

5. I/We didn't want the city in the apartment/house

6. I/We didn't want to call a government agency

7. I/We didn't want to get in trouble with the landlord

8. The problem was fixed right away

9. Another reason



Scripting



Before NOHEAT:

Next, I’m going to ask about the condition of your [apartment / house].


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

RE311_* Enter all that apply, separate with commas.



Administration (Universe Description)




NOHEAT_NUM

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


NOHEAT_NUM

This item is asked if the respondent reported having no heat when they needed it (NOHEAT=1)


FIX_311

This item is only asked of renters who reported having at least one heating breakdown for 6 hours or longer (NOHEAT_NUM<5).


RE311_*

This item is only administered if the respondent did not report calling 311 about the heating breakdown (FIX_311=2).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


At any time during this winter, was there a breakdown in your heating equipment; that is, was it completely unusable for 6 consecutive hours or longer?


1. Yes

2. No


How many times did that [breakdown in your heating equipment] happen?


1. One

2. Two

3. Three

4. Four or more times


2021 Questionnaire

Some questions remain unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire. The questions that were modified are outlined below:



LAST WINTER, that is from October 2019 through May of 2020, was there a time when you had no heat when you needed it?

1. Yes

2. No

999. Respondent did not live here during [reference period]


Rationale



Pretesting of the legacy maintenance deficiency items as part of the 2020+ redesign revealed issues with reference periods as well as question phrasing. (Reference periods are discussed above on page 8.) “This” winter was changed to “last winter” to ensure that respondents were able to report on an entire winter season (previously, “this winter” was referenced for interviews completed in January as well as May).


The phrasing was altered to facilitate interviews that are completed outside of the sampled unit, replacing “this” with “your.” This has been done in multiple items throughout the NYCHVS 2020+ questionnaire.


Stakeholders requested that the NYCHVS collect not only information about problems, but also what residents did to get the problem fixed. These items were added with minor modifications from the New York City Housing and Neighborhood Study (NYCHANS), an in-person interview conducted with low-income New Yorkers. At the request of stakeholders and based on subject matter experts, an additional item was developed to gather information on why New Yorkers do not call 311.


Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



Heating breakdowns of 6 or more hours are used in combination with other items to determine a total count of maintenance deficiencies. Users often use thresholds of three or more items reported or five or more items reported as an indication of poor housing quality.




Maintenance Deficiencies

Variable name

Data file

Lack of hot water

NOTHOTWATER

Occupied

Insufficient heat

ADDHEAT

Occupied

Leaks

LEAKS

Occupied

Mold

MOLD

Occupied

Musty smells

MUSTY

Occupied

Elevator breakdown

ELEV_BROK

Occupied

All elevators broken

ELEV_ALLBROK

Occupied

Rodents (unit)

RODENTS_UNIT

Occupied

Rodents (building)

RODENTS_BUILD

Occupied

Toilets not working

TOILET_BROK

Occupied

Pests (unit)

ROACHES_NUM

Occupied

Holes in walls

WALLHOLES

Occupied

Holes in floors

FLOORHOLES

Occupied

Peeling paint or broken plaster

PEELPAINT

Occupied

Peeling/broken in large section(s)

PEELPAINT_LARGE

Occupied


At any time last winter, was there a time when you did not have hot water for at least 6 hours?

1. Yes

2. No

3. Yes, but only for maintenance or repairs



When your heat WAS working last winter, did you use additional sources of heat, such as a stove or a space heater?

1. Yes

2. No



In the last year, have you had any leaks in your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period


In the last year, have you had any mold in your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No



In the last year, how often have you

noticed any musty or moldy smells inside

your [apartment/house]? Would you say

daily, weekly, monthly, a few times, or

never?

1. Daily

2. Weekly

3. Monthly

4. A few times

5. Never



In the last year, was there a time when the elevator was broken or not working for 6 hours or more?

1. Yes

2. No



When that happened, was there another elevator still working in the building?



1. Yes

2. No



At any time in the last 3 months have you seen any evidence of mice or rats inside the [apartment/house]?


1. Yes

2. No

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period


At any time in the last 3 months have you seen any evidence of mice or rats inside THE BUILDING?

1. Yes

2. No

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period


At any time in the last 3 months was there a time when your [toilets/toilet] [were/was] not working for at least 6 hours?

1. Yes

2. No



Last month, about how many cockroaches did you see in your [apartment/ house] on a typical day?

1. None

2. 1 to 5

3. 6 to 19

4. 20 or more

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period


Are there cracks or holes in the walls or ceilings inside your [apartment/ house] now?

1. Yes

2. No



Are there holes in the floors of your [apartment/ house] now?

1. Yes

2. No


Is there any broken plaster or peeling paint on the ceiling or walls inside of your [apartment/ house] now?

1. Yes

2. No


Is the area of broken plaster or peeling paint larger than a letter-sized piece of paper?


Interviewer Instruction: Hold up an 8 1/2 x 11 piece of paper



1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



Before NOHEAT:

Next, I’m going to ask about the condition of your [apartment / house].


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


LEAKS



A leak is when water or moisture enters or causes damage to any interior part of the apartment/house.



ELEV_ALLBROK


Mark no if all of the elevators were broken or not working for 6 hours or more at least once.



RODENTS_UNIT

RODENTS_BUILD

ROACHES_NUM




Interviewer Note: Do not include pets


FLOORHOLES


IF NEEDED: Do not include nail holes or small gaps between the baseboard and the flooring.


WALLHOLES


Interview Note: Do not include hairline cracks or nail holes.


PEELPAINT_LARGE


IF NEEDED: An 8 1/2 x 11 piece of paper or an A4 piece of paper

Administration (Universe Description)




NOHOTWATER

ADDHEAT

LEAKS

MOLD

MUSTY

RODENTS_UNIT

ROACHES_NUM

WALLHOLES

FLOORHOLES

PEELPAINT


These items are asked of all respondents in occupied units.



ELEV_BROK


This item is only asked if the sampled unit is in a building that has an elevator (ELEVATOR_FINAL = 1).


ELEV_ALLBROK



This item is asked if the respondent reported having an elevator breakdown (ELEV_BROK=1).


RODENTS_BUILD

This item is asked only if respondent does not report having seen any evidence of mice or rats in their unit (RODENTS_UNIT=2) and if there are two or more units in the building (UNITS_FINAL>1).


TOILET_BROK



This item is asked if the respondent has at least one full bath (FULLBATH_NUM>0) or at least one half-bath (HALTHBATH_NUM>0) or complete facilities (COMPLETEBATH=1).


PEELPAINT_LARGE

This item is asked if the respondent reported having broken plaster or peeling paint (PEELPAINT=1).



Source(s)

New York City Housing and Neighborhood Study (NYCHANS)


[Q_42] At any time during this winter was there a time when you did not have hot water for at least 6 hours?



1. Yes

2. No


Source(s)

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)


[HOQ230] In the past 12 months, has your home had a mildew odor or musty smell?



1. Yes

2. No


NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


At any time during this winter, was there a breakdown in your heating equipment; that is, was it completely unusable for 6 consecutive hours or longer?


1. Yes

2. No


How many times did that [breakdown in your heating equipment] happen?


1. One

2. Two

3. Three

4. Four or more times


During this winter when your regular heating system was working, did you, at any time, have to use additional sources of heat because your regular system did not provide enough heat? Additional sources may be the kitchen stove, a fireplace, or a portable heater.


1. Yes

2. No

At any time in the last 90 days have you seen any mice or rats, or signs of mice or rats in this building?

1. Yes

2. No


Does this apartment (house) have open cracks or holes in the interior walls or ceiling? Do not include hairline cracks.

1. Yes

2. No

Does this apartment (house) have holes in the floors?

1. Yes

2. No

Is there any broken plaster or peeling paint on the ceiling or inside walls?

1. Yes

2. No

Is the area of broken plaster or peeling paint larger than 81⁄2 inches by 11 inches?

1. Yes

2. No

Has water leaked into your apartment (house) in the last 12 months, excluding leaks resulting from your own plumbing fixtures backing up or overflowing?

1. Yes

2. No

2021 Questionnaire

Some questions remain unchanged from the 2021 instrument. Questions that were modified are outlined below:


Is the area of broken plaster or peeling paint larger than this sheet of paper?


Interviewer Instruction: Hold up an 8 1/2 x 11 piece of paper


1. Yes

2. No





Rationale



Pretesting of the legacy maintenance deficiency items revealed issues with reference periods as well as question phrasing. (Reference periods are discussed above on page 8.)


The ordering of these items was altered for 2020+ such that the reference periods are sequenced from longest (in the last year) to the shortest (now); reference periods were added where previously they had only been implied. “This” winter was changed to “last winter” to ensure that respondents were able to report on an entire winter season (previously, “this winter” was referenced for interviews completed in January as well as May).


Minor edits to all questions were made based on pretesting in order to shorten the questions and simplify word choice. These edits were based on a combination of testing by CBSM and HPD prior to the 2021 survey cycle. Terms that respondents found confusing (e.g., inside walls) were removed. Additional optional text was added, in some cases making text optional where it had previously been written as part of the question (e.g., do not include hairline cracks). The phrasing was altered to facilitate interviews that are completed outside of the sampled unit, replacing “this” with “your.” This has been done in multiple items throughout the NYCHVS 2020+ questionnaire.


One item was added specifically about seeing mice or rats in the apartment, rather than only asking about building. This was done to provide more information on the most common maintenance deficiency, as well as to ensure valid responses. Field observations of 2017 NYHVS showed that Field Representatives sometimes did not read the question verbatim (i.e., dropping “building” from the question).


The NYCHVS has intermittently asked about mold. Items that ask about both having mold and smelling musty or moldy smells provides greater sensitivity for users to identify possible mold problems in the sampled unit.


Elevator breakdowns were added to provide information on building problems, accessibility, and other risks associated with living in a building without elevator access, such as during disasters or storms.


Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


The wording of the question on the size of peeling paint was updated for the 2023 questionnaire to refer to the size of the reference paper in the question, in addition to showing a visual example. This was based on experience and feedback from 2021.



Recode Usage



There are several standard maintenance deficiencies that are combined to determine a total count of maintenance deficiencies in line with past NYCHVS cycles: heating breakdown (NOHEAT_NUM<5), use of additional heating sources (ADD_HEAT), leaks (LEAKS), toilet breakdowns (TOILET_BROK), holes in the floors or walls (HOLES_WALLS, HOLES_FLOOR), and large sections of peeling paint (PEELPAINT_LARGE). Users often use thresholds of three or more items reported or five or more items reported as an indication of poor housing quality.




Pest Control

Variable name

Data file

Use of exterminator

EXTERM_FREQ

Occupied


In the last year, how many times have you had an exterminator in your [apartment/house]?



Enter number of times




Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


EXTERM_FREQ


IF NEEDED: Include any exterminator, regardless of whether it is a building service or not.


Administration (Universe Description)




EXTERM_*


These items are asked of all renters in occupied units (RENTER=1).


Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Is this building serviced by an exterminator regularly, only when needed, irregularly, or not at all?

  1. Regularly

  2. Only when needed

  3. Irregularly

  4. Not at all


2021 Questionnaire

This question was not included in the 2021 instrument but was included in the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale



Exterminator service was modified based on pretesting and expert review. The answer choices of the legacy question were not mutually exclusive and led to confusion among respondents. The question was updated for 2023 to instead ask how many times the respondent had an exterminator in the apartment in the last year.


Recode Usage



N/A

Renovations

Variable name

Data file

Repairs caused housing problems

RENOVATE_REAS

Occupied

Under renovation

RENOVATE

Occupied


Were any of the problems we discussed in your [apartment/house] caused by renovations or repairs?

1. Yes

2. No


Is your [apartment/ house] now under renovation?

1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A


Administration (Universe Description)




RENOVATE_REAS


These items are only asked if the respondent reported one or more problem (MAINT_DEF = 1).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A


2021 Questionnaire

These questions were not fielded in 2021 but were included in the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale


2020+ pretesting revealed that some items historically labeled as ‘maintenance deficiencies’ are actually the result of ongoing improvements to the home. For example, holes in the wall may be caused by upgrades to the electrical system that are underway; broken plaster may be the result of a new doorway being created. These items may pose a risk to the current occupants even if they are caused by something that is done by choice rather than lack of maintenance. Therefore, the NYCHVS Sponsor team opted to ask the maintenance deficiency items (first) and follow with an item about whether any of the issues were caused by renovation or repair work to give users flexibility of whether these issues should be counted as a deficiency or if units undergoing repair or renovation should be excluded. The second item (Is your [apartment/ house] now under renovation?) is used to estimate a prevalence of renovation work being performed while occupants are in residence. A similar item will be asked of vacant units.


Recode Usage


N/A


Perceived Quality of Unit

Variable name

Data file

Rating of unit overall

UNIT_RATING

Occupied


On a scale of 1-10, when 1 is the worst and 10 is the best, how would you rate your current [apartment/house] as a place to live?



1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

UNIT_RATE


IF NEEDED: when 1 is the worst and 10 is the best…

Administration (Universe Description)




UNIT_RATING


This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A




2021 Questionnaire

This question was not fielded in 2021 but was included in the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale



The 2020+ revised NYCHVS seeks to identify positive sources of housing quality as well as deficiencies and poor housing quality, as the survey has done for many cycles. This item was developed based on stakeholder feedback prior to the 2021 survey. Other items ask about complete and functioning facilities as well as presence of various appliances, their relative age, and if they are in working order. This question asks for the respondent’s perception of quality and may be used to assess subjective dimensions of the New York City housing stock.

Several versions of this question were tested. The final phrasing and answer choices are designed to align with other 1 to 10 rating scales (including those adapted from the American Housing Survey).

Recode Usage



N/A




Air Conditioners

Variable name

Data file

Central air conditioning

CENTRALAIR

Occupied

Window / wall air conditioning

ACUNIT

Occupied

Disuse of air conditioning

AC_OFF

Occupied


Does your [apartment/ house] have functioning central air conditioning?

1. Yes

2. No


Last June, July, or August, did your [apartment/house] have one or more functioning air conditioner that is removable, such as one that goes in a window or through a wall?

1. Yes

2. No

999. Respondent did not live here during reference period


Last June, July, or August, did you ever keep your air conditioner off due to cost when you otherwise would want to use it?

1. Yes

2. No



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

CENTRALAIR

IF NEEDED: An air conditioning system that does not have to plug into the wall.


ACUNIT


Interviewer note: Include air conditioners that are still working but are in storage.


Administration (Universe Description)




CENTRALAIR

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


ACUNIT

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


AC_OFF

This item is asked if the respondent reported having one or more removable air conditioning unit (ACUNIT=1).



Source(s)

N/A




NYCHVS History

2014, 2017


Does your apartment (house) have functioning air conditioning? Would you say central air conditioning, one or more window air conditioners, or no air conditioning?

  1. Yes, central air conditioning

  2. Yes, one or more window air conditioners

  3. No



2021 Questionnaire

These questions were not fielded in 2021 but were included in the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale



In 2014 and 2017, the NYCHVS asked whether the sampled unit had functioning air conditioning. This item was used to estimate populations that may be vulnerable in heat emergencies; however, it did not collect granular enough information to assess related issues, such as impact on utility costs, usage, or control (central air is generally controlled by a building owner whereas window air conditions are generally controlled by the resident). The legacy phrasing of the item also did not allow for through-wall air conditioners, which are common in high rise buildings and newer construction. The legacy form of the question gave priority to central air when a unit contained both central air and one or more removable unit even though pretesting showed that having both was not uncommon.

For these reasons, the legacy question is now two separate questions that allow users to identify whether one or both forms of air conditioners are present in the unit. The addition of the question on whether the respondent avoids usage due to cost provides information that may be valuable to a wider range of policy issues. For example, this question may be used in conjunction with reported utility costs during summer months.


Recode Usage



N/A


Extreme Heat

Variable name

Data file

Open windows during winter

TEMP_HOT

Occupied


Last winter, how often was it so hot in your [apartment/ house] because of your heat that you had to open the windows?


[INTERVIEWER: Show Flashcard 1]

1. Most days

2. Some days

3. A few days

4. Never

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A



Administration (Universe Description)




TEMP_HOT

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire

This question was not fielded in 2021 but was included in the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale



The inclusion of a modified version of the AHS question on feeling cold supplements the legacy NYCHVS items on heating breakdowns and need for additional heating source(s). Reference period and inclusion of a N/A choice when the respondent did not yet live in the unit were altered/added.

Pretesting of questions prior to the 2021 survey related to lack of heat and need for additional heating sources revealed that many New Yorkers experience variable heat in their home, sometimes being cold and at other times being too hot. For this reason, the item asking about opening the windows during the winter was developed to identify variable heat issues as well as identify wasted heating fuel that may be of interest to users focusing on energy usage and climate policy.


Recode Usage



N/A





Household Composition




Pets and Service Animals

Variable name

Data file

Animals living in unit

ANIMS

Occupied

Service animal

SERVICEANIMAL

Occupied

Dogs

DOGS_NUM

Occupied

Cats

CATS_NUM

Occupied

Other pets

OTHERPETS

Occupied


Do you have any animals that live with you?

1. Yes

2. No


Are any of the animals that live with you a service animal?

1. Yes

2. No


What animals live in your [apartment/house]? Enter all that apply, separate with commas



Enter Number of Dogs __________

Enter Number of Cats __________

Enter Number of Other Pets ______


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A




Administration (Universe Description)




PETS

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


SERVICEANIMAL

This item is asked of all respondents that report having one or more animal in the sampled unit (PETS=1).


DOGS_NUM

CATS_NUM

OTHERPETS

This item is asked of anyone that reported having one or more animal in the sampled unit (PETS=1).



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire

This question is unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.


Rationale



Conversations with stakeholders as part of the 2020+ redesign led to inclusion of items on pets and service animals. To the best of our knowledge, there is no other existing representative source of data on this topic. Information on pets may represent a source of allergens for those with respiratory issues, the presence of a service animal may be useful in examining the particular needs of those living with disabilities, and the presence of pets may constrict a household’s ability to move elsewhere to the extent that pet policies vary from building to building. Having animals when building rules preclude them may place households at risk of eviction (rules about animals in the building where the sampled unit is located will be collected separately as part of the Interviewer Observation Survey (IOS) and may be analyzed in conjunction with the self-reported items here).

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


Recode Usage



N/A



Household Roster

Item

Variable name

Data file

Household size

HHSIZE

Occupied

First names of occupants

FNAME


IUF Only

Last names of occupants

LNAME_P1 – LNAME_P15

IUF Only

Relationship to respondent

RELATION_P1-RELATION_P15

Person


How many people live in your [apartment/house], including you?


Enter Number of People ___________


What are the names of all the people living or staying here?


Enter first name or initials:

1. Respondent

2. ____________________

3. ____________________

4. ____________________

5. ____________________

6. ____________________

7. ____________________

8. ____________________

9. ____________________

10. ____________________

11. ____________________

12. ____________________

13. ____________________

14. ____________________

15. ____________________



(Enter last name if volunteered by respondent)

Enter last name:

1. Respondent

2. ____________________

3. ____________________

4. ____________________

5. ____________________

6. ____________________

7. ____________________

8. ____________________

9. ____________________

10. ____________________

11. ____________________

12. ____________________

13. ____________________

14. ____________________

15. ____________________



What is [person]’s relationship to you?

0.

Reference person

1.

Husband/wife

2.

Unmarried partner

3.

Child

4.

Brother/sister (stepbrother/sister)

5.

Father/mother

6.

Father-in-law/mother-in-law

7.

Grandchild

8.

Grandparent

9.

Other relative (cousin, nephew, etc.)

10.

Roommate/Boarder

11.

Other non-relative




Scripting



Before HHSIZE:

In this next section, I'm going to ask about you and anyone else who lives with you.


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

HHSIZE


Interviewer note: If no people in the [apartment/house] live or stay here for 6 months or more out of the year, enter '888'.


FNAME_P*



IF NEEDED: I don’t need full names, it is ok to just give me first name or initials. I just need some way to refer to them when I ask some follow-up questions.


Interviewer Note: Enter first name or initial. Only enter last name if offered by respondent.






Administration (Universe Description)




HHSIZE

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


FNAME_P*

This information is gathered from all respondents that report a household size of more than one (HHSIZE>1).


LNAME_P*

This information is gathered from all respondents that report a household size of more than one (HHSIZE>1).


RELATION_P*

This item is looped for each person in the household besides the respondent (NAME_P[Person]<>DK or R).


Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (see below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017

What are the names of all persons living or staying here?


Start with the ADULT who owns or rents this apartment (house).


(Enter that name under PERSON 1 below.)

  • Include anyone staying here with no other home

  • Include anyone who usually lives here but is temporarily away traveling or at school

  • Include lodgers, boarders, babies, etc



For each person:


Last Name _____________________


First Name _____________________


How is . . . related to . . . (reference person) (person on Line 1)?


Show respondent Flash Card


1. Husband/wife

2. Son/daughter (own, adopted, step)

3. Brother/sister (stepbrother/sister)

4. Father/mother Father-in-law/mother-in-law

5. Grandchild

6. Grandparent

7. Other relative (cousin, nephew, etc.) 8. Roomer/boarder/foster child

9. Unmarried partner

10. Housemate/roommate

11. Other non-relative



2021 Questionnaire

Some questions remain unchanged from 2021, the questions that were modified are outlined below:



How many people live in your [apartment/house], including you?


Interviewer Note: If no persons in the [apartment/house] live or stay here for 6 months or more out of the year, enter '888'. If this is because of the pandemic, enter the number of people, not '888'.

Enter number of people



Rationale



Feedback from Field Representatives that conducted the 2017 NYCHVS as well as observation of field operations showed that the legacy version of these items increased sensitivity to privacy, as the NYCHVS historically asked for first and last name of each person in the household at the beginning of the interview before any rapport was established (it was the first item of the legacy instrument). Observation of field operations in 2017 also revealed that the use of a flash card for this question was unnecessary (i.e., people were able to answer without a prompt for relationship categories) and onerous (many field representatives did not use the flash card at all and instead coded open-ended responses after the interview concluded).

The first item (how many people live here) helps to frame the listing of individuals in the following item and validate that every individual has been captured. The option to list only first name or initials allows respondents who are sensitive about giving a full name the option to provide some other way to refer to people when later items require fills. Relationship to respondent was modified to be field representative-coded, rather than a card. This reduces both respondent and field representative burden and alleviates difficulties in verbatim translation of these relationship categories. The order of answer items was altered to group similar relationships together (i.e., spouse and unmarried partner) rather than give precedence to traditional nuclear family structures (spouse, then child, etc. and only list partner at the end).

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


For 2023, the use of a roster card to list household members has been suspended, as its use and value was not apparent during the 2021 field period.


Recode Usage



N/A


Age

Item

Variable name

Data file

Birthdate (month)

BDAY_MON_P1-BDAY_MON_P15

IUF Only

Birthdate (day)

BDAY_DAY_P1-BDAY_DAY_P15

IUF Only

Birthdate (year)

BDAY_YEAR_P1-BDAY_YEAR_P15

IUF Only

Age (estimated)

AGE_P1-AGE_P15

Person

Minor (under 18)

AGE_MINOR_P1-AGE_MINOR_P15

Person

Minor (under 6)

AGE_MINOR2_P1- AGE_MINOR2_P15


Person

Senior 62+

AGE_SENIOR_P1-AGE_SENIOR_P15

Person

Gender

GENDER_P1-

GENDER_P15

Person


What is [your/[person]'s] date of birth?

1.

January

2.

February

3.

March

4.

April

5.

May

6.

June

7.

July

8.

August

9.

September

10.

October

11.

November

12.

December



Enter Day _______


Enter Year _______




What is [your/[Person]'s] age?




Enter Age _______




[Are you/Is [person]] under 18?






1. Yes

2. No




[Are you/Is [person]] under 6?






1. Yes

2. No


[Are you/Is [person]] 62 or over?

1. Yes

2. No


What is [your/Person’s] gender?


1.

Male

2.

Female

3.

Other




Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text



BDAY_MON_*

BDAY_DAY_*

BDAY_YEAR_*


IF NEEDED: This information helps me know what topics to ask about. For example, I may ask about childcare costs or retirement savings depending on the age of the people who live with you.

AGE_*

IF NEEDED: If you are not sure, your best guess is fine


GENDER_P*


IF NEEDED: What gender [do you/does Person] identify as now?


Interviewer Note: Do not read answer choices



Administration (Universe Description)




BDAY_MON_P*

BDAY_DAY_P*

BDAY_YEAR_P*


This item is looped for all persons, including the respondent.


AGE_P*

This item is looped for each household member where a specific birthdate was not provided (BDAY_*_P[Person]=DK or R).


AGE_MINOR_P*

This item is administered if respondent does not know or refuses to give person’s age (AGE_P[Person]= DK or R)


AGE_SENIOR_P*

This item is administered if respondent does not know or refuses to give person’s age (AGE_P[Person]= DK or R) and the person is not identified as a minor (AGE_MINOR_P[Person]=2).




Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


How old is . . . ? (Enter whole years ONLY.)

Enter Years __________



2021 Questionnaire


This question is unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.



Rationale



Every attempt will be made to capture full birthday for each individual. This enables greater precision of recoding of age (in whole years) based on interview date. If respondent is unwilling or unable to give full birthdate, two options are provided instead to reduce item non-response.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


Recode Usage



Age of each person is recoded to whole years based on all available information.


Relationships of Others

Variable name

Data file

Marital Status (R)

MARITALSTAT_P1- MARITALSTAT_P15


Person

Spouse residence

SPOUSE_RES_P1-

SPOUSE_RES_P15


Person

Spouse location

SPOUSE_LOC_P1- SPOUSE_LOC_P15



Household member spouse

SPOUSE_P1-

SPOUSE_P15



Household relationships, spouse

LNSPOUSE_P2-LNSPOUSE_P15



Household relationships, partner

COHABWHO_P2-COHABWHO_P15



Parent / guardian in household

PARENT_P2-PARENT_P15

Person

Identify parent/guardian 1

SLNPAR1_P


Identify parent/guardian 2

SLNPAR2_P



Are you currently married, divorced, separated, widowed, or have you never been married?


1.

Married

2.

Divorced

3.

Separated

4.

Widowed

5.

Never Married




Does your spouse live with you or somewhere else?

1. Spouse lives with respondent
2. Spouse lives somewhere else


Where does your spouse currently live?

1. New York City
2. Outside of New York City, but in the United States
3. Outside of the United States


Does [person] have a spouse or unmarried partner in the [apartment/house]?

1. Yes, a spouse in the household.
2. Yes, an unmarried partner in the household.
3. No partner or spouse in the household


Who is [your/Person's] spouse in the [apartment/house]?

Enter Person # ___________


Who is [your/Person's] unmarried partner in the [apartment/house]?


Enter Person # ___________


[Do you/ Does [person]] have a parent or legal guardian in the [apartment/ house]?


1. Yes

2. No


Who is [your/Person's] parent or legal guardian in the [apartment/house]?

Parent 1: Enter Person # ___________

Parent 2: Enter Person # ___________







Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


LNSPOUSE_P2-LNSPOUSE_P15

Interviewer Note: Enter person number of spouse

COHABWHO_P2-COHABWHO_P15

Interviewer Note: Enter person number of unmarried partner.

SLNPAR*_P

Interviewer Note: Enter person number(s) of parent(s)/legal guardian(s).

Interviewer Note (Census suggested): If more than one parent present, please enter each line number separated with commas.



Administration (Universe Description)




SPOUSE_P*


This item is looped for persons 2-k if the person was not already identified as the spouse or unmarried partner of the respondent or another household member of the respondent, is 15 years or older, and was not otherwise identified as a minor ADULT[PERSON] = 1 & SPOUSE_P[2-(PERSON-1)] <> [PERSON]).


LNSPOUSE_P2-LNSPOUSE_P15

This item is looped for each person who has a coresident spouse in the unit (SPOUSE_P* = 1).


COHABWHO_P2-COHABWHO_P15

This item is looped for each person who has an unmarried partner in the unit (SPOUSE_P* = 2).


PARENT_P*

This item is looped for each person if the person was not already identified as a parent of the respondent (RELATIONSHIP_P[Person]<>3).

SLNPAR*_P

This item is looped for each person who has a parent or legal guardian in the household (PARENT_P* = 1).




Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Does . . . have a spouse or unmarried partner in the household?

1. Yes: Enter Person # ________

2. No

3. Under 15


Does . . . have a parent in the household?

1. Yes: Person # _________

2. No


NYCHVS History


Some questions remain unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire. Quests that were modified are outlined below:

[Do you/Does Person] have a spouse or unmarried partner in the household?

1. Yes: Enter Person # ________

2. No


[Do you/ Does [person]] have a parent or legal guardian in the [apartment/ house]?


1. Yes: Enter Person # __________

2. No



Rationale



These items are replicated from past NYCHVS survey cycles and are used to determine various household compositions with only minor modifications to facilitate administration by Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI). For 2023 an additional question was added to assist FRs in prompting respondents to identify which household member(s) are spouse/partner or parent/ legal guardian. This will assist in ensuring accurate date especially if there are multiple parents/legal guardians living in the unit. In addition for 2023 questions were added to assist FRs in specifically identifying spousal and unmarried partner relationships between household members.



Recode Usage



These items, in combination with relationship to respondent, are used to code various standardized household compositions such as ‘co-resident parent and child’ and ‘married couple with child.’




Residential History




Length of Residence

Variable name

Data file

Moved to unit (year)

MOVEIN_P1-MOVEIN_P15

Occupied

Moved to unit (1971)

MOVE1971_P1- MOVE1971_P15

Occupied

Moved to unit (month)

MOVEIN_MON_P1-MOVEIN_MON_P15

Occupied


In what year did [you/Person] move into the [apartment/ house]?

Enter Year ___________


Did [you/Person] move in on or after July 1 in 1971?

1. Yes, on or after July 1 in 1971

2. No, before July 1 in 1971


In what month did [you/Person] move into the [apartment/ house]?

1. January

2. February

3. March

4. April

5. May

6. June

7. July

8. August

9. September

10. October

11. November

12. December




Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


MOVEIN_*

MOVEIN_MON_*




The most recent time the person moved in, if there have been multiple move-ins and move-outs


Administration (Universe Description)




MOVEIN_P*


This item is looped for each person in the household.


MOVE1971_P*

This item is looped for each person that reporting moving into the sampled unit in 1971 (MOVEIN_P[PERSON] = 1971 OR MOVEIN_P[PERSON]=DK OR MOVEIN_P[PERSON]=RF).

MOVEIN_MON_P*

This item is looped for each person that moved into the sampled unit in the last two years (MOVEIN_P[PERSON] in [2020, 2021,2022, 2023]).



Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


In what year did . . . (person) move into this apartment (house)?

[Only ask if (person) is 15 years or older]

Enter Year __________

Ask only if reference person moved here in 1971. Did . . . (person) move here on or after July 1 in 1971?

1. Yes

2. No

2021 Questionnaire

These questions were unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.



Rationale



Through 2014, this legacy item was only asked of the householder (reference person); in 2017, it was asked of the householder and also about every co-resident person age 15 or older. This was done to reduce bias related to other household members that took up residence prior to the householder (e.g., when an adult has possession of the unit before the reference person (adult child) moved in). This was a critical correction as year moved in is partly used in determining rent control and rent stabilization status.

In 2021, this item was administered for every person in the household, regardless of age or role. This expansion will enable users interested in family formation to understand variation in household composition over time, including mobility of children.

If any person in the household moved to the unit in the last 2 years, the respondent is asked what month they moved in. This is essential for accurate length of residence for each member of the household, particularly for identifying the prevalence of moves within the prior year of the interview.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



These items are used as part of the logic determining control status recode (housing type).




Lease History

Variable name

Data file

Has lease now

LEASENOW

Occupied

Ever had lease

LEASEEVER

Occupied

Length of lease

LEASE_LENGTH

Occupied

Start of lease (year)

LEASE_YEAR

Occupied

Start of lease (month)

LEASE_MONTH

Occupied


Do [you/you or anyone else you live with] currently have a lease for your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No

Have [you/you or anyone else you live with] ever had a lease for this [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No

What is the length of the current lease; that is, the total time from when this lease began until it will end?

1. Less than 1 year

2. 1 year

3. More than 1 but less than 2 years

4. 2 years

5. More than 2 years

What year did your current lease start?




Enter Year ________


What month did your current lease start?

1. January

2. February

3. March

4. April

5. May

6. June

7. July

8. August

9. September

10. October

11. November

12. December




Scripting





Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


LEASE_YEAR

LEASE_MON




IF NEEDED: The lease start date is the effective date, not the date it was signed.

Administration (Universe Description)




LEASENOW


This item is asked of all renters in occupied units (RENTER=1).


LEASEEVER

This item is asked for all respondents that indicate they do not currently have a lease (LEASENOW=2).


LEASE_LENGTH

This item is asked of each respondent who reported having a lease now (LEASENOW=1).


LEASE_YEAR

This item is asked of each respondent who reported having a lease now (LEASENOW=1).


LEASE_MONTH

This item is asked of each respondent who reported having a lease now (LEASENOW=1) and when the current lease began in 2019 or later (LEASE_YEAR>=2019).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

Expands upon legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


What is the length of the lease on this apartment (house); that is, the total time from when the lease began until it will expire?

Less than 1 year

1 year

More than 1 but less than 2 years

2 years

More than 2 years

No lease



2021 Questionnaire


LEASENOQ is unchanged from the 2021 instrument. All other questions were not fielded in 2021 but were part of the 2020+ redesign.




Rationale



Pretesting as part of the 2020+ redesign revealed substantial variation in living situations, including leases. Some renters had a lease in the past but are now living without a lease while others had month-to-month leases or no lease. In some cases when there was no lease now, respondents gave the length of the last lease. For these reasons, expert review recommended that the NYCHVS collect not only length of current lease, but also if there was a lease in the past.

Stakeholder review identified that users commonly use the legacy item to estimate rent increases based on length of lease (imputed from length of residence in some cases) and timing of lease against Rent Guidelines Board rent orders. The legacy form of the item did not capture which year the lease began, leading to error in these uses. Not knowing the month of the lease is also a critical component of knowing which rent order is applicable. For these reasons, additional items were added for 2023.

Recode Usage



N/A




Lease History

Variable name

Data file

Rent regulation status (R)

RENTREG

Occupied


Is your [apartment/ house] under Rent Control, Rent Stabilization, or Neither?

1. Under Rent Control

2. Under Rent Stabilization

3. Neither

4. Respondent is not familiar with the programs or whether their apartment/house is subject to them



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A



Administration (Universe Description)




RENTREG


This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.



Source(s)

NYCHVS



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005


Is this apartment (house) under Rent Control or Rent Stabilization?

1. Under Rent Control

2. Under Rent Stabilization

3. Neither of the above


2021 Questionnaire


This question was not fielded in 2021 but was part of the 2020+ redesign.




Rationale



A version of this item was administered as part of the NYCHVS through 2005, after which it was discontinued because self-report was often inaccurate. Stakeholder review suggested that the value of this item was not solely about identifying the rent regulation status of the unit; rather, it was used to identify which tenants know their status and what characteristics are associated with accurate or inaccurate knowledge. Tenant advocacy groups expressed interest in identifying where public education should be directed. For these reasons, a modified version of the question will be included moving forward.

Recode Usage



N/A




Residential History

Variable name

Data file

First moved to neighborhood (year)

NABE_MOVED

Occupied

Rating of neighborhood (now)

NABENOW_RATE

Occupied

Rating of neighborhood (then)

NABETHEN_RATE

Occupied

Last homeless

LAST_HOMELESS_P1-LAST_HOMELESS_P15

Person


What year did you first move to the neighborhood where you live now?

Enter Year __________


On a scale of 1-10, when 1 is worst and 10 is best, how would you rate your current neighborhood as a place to live?





1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10



How would you rate your neighborhood as a place to live when you first moved there [?/ in [YEAR]?]



1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10



Before moving into your [apartment/house], [were you/which of the people who live in your [apartment/house], including you, were] homeless or in a temporary housing situation?

1. Person 1 (respondent)

2. Person 2

3. Person 3

4. Person 4

5. Person 5

6. Person 6

7. Person 7

8. Person 8

9. Person 9

10. Person 10

11. Person 11

12. Person 12

13. Person 13

14. Person 14

15. Person 15



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


NABE_MOVED



Interviewer Note: The first time the respondent ever lived in the current neighborhood


NABETHEN_RATE

IF NEEDED: On a scale of 1-10, when 1 is worst and 10 is best...


Interviewer Note: As far back respondent remembers


LAST_HOMELESS

Interviewer Note: Code staying with family or friends, staying in a hotel or Airbnb, or sublet that wasn't a primary residence as a temporary housing situation. Temporary can be any length of time, as defined by the respondent.


Administration (Universe Description)




NABE_MOVED


This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


NABENOW_RATE

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


NABETHEN_RATE

This item is asked of respondents who moved into the sampled unit in the last five years (YEARSSINCEMOVEIN1 <=5 ).


LAST_HOMELESS_P

This item is asked about each person that was reported as moving into the sampled unit in the last ten years (YEARSSINCEMOVEIN[Person]<= 10).


Source(s)

American Housing Survey (AHS)


How would you rate your neighborhood on a scale of 1 - 10? 10 is best, 1 is worst

1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


How would you rate the physical condition of the residential structures in this NEIGHBORHOOD – would you say they are on the whole excellent, good, fair, or poor?

1. Excellent

2. Good

3. Fair

4. Poor


Is there anyone now living in this apartment (house) that came here within the past five years from a homeless situation such as a shelter, transitional center, or hotel?

1. Yes

2. No


Who are they?

1. Person 1 (respondent)

2. Person 2

3. Person 3

4. Person 4

5. Person 5

6. Person 6

7. Person 7

8. Person 8

9. Person 9

10. Person 10

11. Person 11

12. Person 12




2021 Questionnaire


These questions were not fielded in 2021 but were part of the 2020+ redesign.






Rationale



Stakeholders indicated the need for additional information on length of neighborhood residence and neighborhood change. In response, an item was added to the 2020+ NYCHVS on when the respondent first moved to the neighborhood (previous surveys only identified when the respondent moved to the sampled unit).

Pretesting showed that respondents may not know what is meant by terms such as “physical condition” or “residential structures.” Research on neighborhood effects values perceptions of neighborhood quality that extend beyond physical condition only. For these reasons, the NYCHVS now asks a more general rating of neighborhood and housing quality.

Questions on housing and neighborhood quality are based on questions from the AHS, with slight phrasing changes to allow for parallel question structure.2 Rating of housing quality has been used as an alternative to the count of maintenance deficiencies used in previous NYCHVS cycles and offers users the ability to weight specific deficiencies based on severity and prevalence.3

Stakeholder review showed the value in perceptions of neighborhood change. Rather than ask about specific types of change, the NYCHVS will now ask a global measure of change, as captured by the item on rating of neighborhood when the respondent first moved. This may be used in conjunction with current rating of neighborhood to estimate a change score.

Since 1991, the NYCHVS has collected information on co-resident persons who moved from a homeless situation. This legacy item was modified based on feedback from the translation team and subject matter experts. Additional interviewer notes were added based on feedback from cognitive interviews conducted by CBSM. The format of the question was modified to accommodate more efficient administration of this potentially sensitive question.

These items were not fielded in 2021, but will be included in 2023.

Recode Usage



N/A


Last Home

Variable name

Data file

Last address / intersection (zip code)

LASTHOME_ZIP

IUF Only



What was the zip code of the last place you lived?


Enter Zip Code: ________________

Enter 00000 if the respondent moved from outside of the United States


Scripting


N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

N/A

Administration (Universe Description)




LASTHOME_ZIP

This item is asked of respondents who moved within the past two years, was not previously homeless, and reported last living somewhere else in New York City or somewhere else in the United States (INT_YEAR minus MOVEIN_P[PERSON] <= 2 and LAST_HOMELESS_P1=2 )



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

2002, 2005


Which sub-borough did . . . (reference person) live in? Refer to the maps in your job aid.

Enter 2-digit Sub-borough Area Code



2021 Questionnaire


This question was not fielded in 2021 but was part of the 2020+ redesign.


Rationale



Stakeholder and expert review as part of the 2020+ redesign showed the importance of capturing information on residential mobility, including neighborhood trajectories. A version of this question was asked in the 2002 and 2005 NYCHVSs, after which it was discontinued. Researchers have used the legacy form of the question to identify types of displacement that are not possible through other surveys because they lack density of moves from one neighborhood to another within a single city. Subject matter experts determined that these data are valuable, but the legacy form of the question lacked granularity and was difficult to administer, as it required use of borough-level maps and Field Representative coding during the interview.

While disclosure avoidance procedures necessitate careful aggregation to protect participants’ identities, having zip code information allows for internal use that is critical to the aims of the NYCHVS.

Recode Usage



N/A



Neighborhood Safety

Variable name

Data file

Safety on street at night

SAFETY_RATE

Occupied


On a scale of 1-10, when 1 is very unsafe and 10 is very safe, how safe are the streets around your [apartment/ house] at night?

1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4

5. 5

6. 6

7. 7

8. 8

9. 9

10. 10



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


N/A




Administration (Universe Description)




SAFETY_RATE

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


Source(s)

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)


How safe are the streets around your home at night? Would you say they are very safe, safe, unsafe, or very unsafe?

1. Very safe

2. Safe

3. Unsafe

4. Very unsafe


NYCHVS History

N/A


2021 Questionnaire


This question was not fielded in 2021 but was part of the 2020+ redesign.




Rationale



Based on feedback from translation experts and advance translation, all scales throughout the NYCHVS have been changed to 1 to 10, even when the original answer choices were structured as a Likert-type scale.

Stakeholder review as part of the 2020+ redesign indicated that neighborhood safety was an important dimension of neighborhood quality that users would like to examine. These questions were selected based on expert review of existing questions.

Recode Usage



N/A

Renter Costs




Rental Assistance

Variable name

Data file

Rental assistance (voucher)

RENTASSIST_SEC8

Occupied

Rental assistance (shelter)

RENTASSIST_SA

Occupied

Rental assistance (SCRIE/DRIE)

RENTASSIST_RIE

Occupied

Rental assistance (other)

RENTASSIST_OTHER

Occupied

No rental assistance reported

RENTASSIST_NONE

Occupied

Applied to housing lottery

LOTTERY_RENTER

Occupied

Income restricted unit

INCOMEQUALIFY_RENTER

Occupied

Rent paid by someone else

RENTOUTSIDE

Occupied



Is any part of the rent for your [apartment/house] paid by any of the following rental assistance programs?


[INTERVIEWER: Show Flashcard 2]

1. Section 8/Housing Choice Voucher

2. Shelter Allowance/CityFHEPS

3. SCRIE/DRIE

4. Other assistance that pays part of your rent

5. None






Did you or anyone you live with apply to a housing lottery to get your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No




[Separate from [rental assistance program], did/Did] you or anyone you live with have to show that your income was BELOW a certain amount to get your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No



Is any part of the rent for your [apartment/house] paid by a person who doesn't live with you or directly by an employer?

1. Yes

2. No




Scripting



Before RENTASSIST_*:

I'm now going to ask you some questions about your rental costs.


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text



RENTASSIST_*

Interviewer Note: Include alternate payments, such as a reduction in property taxes as payment.


IF NEEDED: That includes to [you/ you or someone you live with] or directly to the landlord.


INCOMEQUALIFY_RENTER

If Needed: This may have been to your building’s developer or to a housing agency, such as HPD or HDC.


Administration (Universe Description)




RENTASSIST_*

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.


LOTTERY_RENTER

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.


INCOMEQUALIFY_RENTER


This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.


RENTOUTSIDE


This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.




Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Is any part of the monthly rent for this apartment (house) paid by any of the following government programs, either to a member of this household or directly to the landlord?



Federal Section 8 certificate or voucher program


1. Yes

2. No


Senior Citizen Rent Increase Exemption (SCRIE)

1. Yes

2. No


Public assistance shelter allowance

1. Yes

2. No


Another Federal housing subsidy program

1. Yes

2. No


Another state or city housing subsidy program

1. Yes

2. No





2021 Questionnaire


These questions were unchanged from the 2021 instrument.




Rationale



Stakeholder review and pretesting as part of the 2020+ redesign flagged issues with the legacy forms of these items. The legacy items’ implied reference period (now) was changed based on recommendations to make reference periods explicit throughout the questionnaire. This change impacted multiple questions throughout the NYCHVS. Because of variability in the timing of when rents are due within a given month, “last month” was selected as the reference period of choice to ensure a complete reference period.

Program names were updated and information on housing lotteries and income qualification support further classifications based on a combination of self-report and administrative records.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



These items are used in several recodes and logical edits.



Rental Costs

Variable name

Data file

Pays fees

RENTFEES

Occupied

Amount of fees

RENTFEES_AMOUNT

Occupied

Contract rent

RENT_AMOUNT

Occupied

Rent due to owner

RENTPAID

Occupied

Amount paid

RENTPAID_AMT

Occupied



Some landlords charge fees in addition to rent, such as for a dishwasher or a pet. Do [you/you or anyone you live with] pay any fees apart from your rent?

1. Yes

2. No




How much are the monthly fees for the [apartment/house]?

Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________




Last month, how much was the rent for your [apartment/house], [including any fees]?



Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________




Last month, was [fill sum of RENT_AMOUNT and RENTFEES_AMOUNT / fill RENT_AMOUNT] the amount paid to the landlord [?/ , including rental assistance programs?/ , including any outside sources?/ , including any rental assistance programs and outside sources?]


1. Yes

2. No




How much was paid to the landlord last month for the [apartment/ house] [?/ , including rental assistance programs?/ , including any outside sources?/ , including any rental assistance programs and outside sources?]


Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________



Scripting



Before RENTFEES:

[These next questions will ask about your rent. Please include amounts paid by [rental assistance programs/outside sources/rent assistance programs and outside sources].


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text



RENTFEES

Interviewer Note: Do not include temporary fees, such as a late fee.


RENTFEES_AMOUNT



Enter the total amount owed, including any fees

Administration (Universe Description)




RENTFEES

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units (RENTER=1).


RENTFEES_AMT


This item is administered if respondent reports paying fees (RENTFEES=1).


RENT_AMOUNT

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units (RENTER=1).


RENTPAID

This item is asked of all renters in occupied units (RENTER=1).


RENTPAID_AMT

This item is asked if the respondent said that the amount paid was different than the amount owed last month (RENTPAID=2).



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


What is the MONTHLY rent?

Enter Amount $_____________



2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.



Rationale



Additional questions were added in 2021 to ensure comprehensive information. Pretesting showed that some tenants pay fees either as part of their rent payment or separately. The legacy form of the question did not ask explicitly about fees and therefore it is unclear whether these amounts were included in the general question, “What is your monthly rent?”.

Previously, the NYCHVS captured the amount paid using a single item, “Of the (amount from question 30 above) rent you reported, how much is paid out of pocket by this household?” Pretesting showed that this question was difficult for some respondents to answer. Households that paid more than the “monthly rent” were unable to answer the question as phrased. The lack of reference period also caused confusion for households that were currently paying less than the ”monthly rent” due to a court order, rent reduction, or because they did not have enough money to pay the full amount.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.

Recode Usage



These items are used in several recodes, including contract rent burden, receipt of rental assistance, and out-of-pocket rent. Additional recodes related to rental costs may be available in future cycles of the NYCHVS.



Rent Contributions

Variable name

Data file

Rental assistance

RENTASSIST_AMOUNT

Occupied

Someone outside household

RENTOUTSIDE_AMOUNT

Occupied

Out of pocket paid by persons

RENTPAID_P1-RENTPAID_P15

Occupied

Confirmation of rent paid

RENTPAID_CONF

Occupied

Rent was paid late

LATERENT

Occupied

How many times rent was late

LATERENT_NUM

Occupied



How much of last month's rent was paid by [this rental assistance program/ these rental assistance programs]?

Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________





How much of last month's rent was paid by those outside sources?


Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________





How much of last month's rent was paid by [person/you]?




Enter Dollar Amount:

$ __________________




All of these amounts don't seem to add up to what [you/ you and the people you live with] paid last month. Let's go back and make sure what I have is right.







In the last year, were [you/ you and the people you live with] ever late paying the rent because you didn't have enough money at the time?


1.

Yes

2.

No

999.

Respondent did not live in unit during reference period






How many times were [you/ you and the people you live with] late paying the rent in the last year?


Enter Number _____________






Scripting



Before RENTASSIST_AMOUNT:

Earlier you said some of your rent was paid by Rental Assistance Program Fill - a, not.


Before RENTOUTSIDE_AMOUNT:

Earlier you said some of your rent was paid by someone else or by an employer.



Interviewer Notes and Optional Text



RENTASSIST_AMOUNT

Include alternate payments, such as a reduction in property taxes as payment from programs such as SCRIE or DRIE.


RENTPAID_*


If people pay rent from a joint account, split the amount evenly among contributors.



Administration (Universe Description)




RENTASSIST_AMOUNT

This item is administered to respondents that reported receiving any rental assistance (RENTASSIST_NONE <> 1).


RENTOUTSIDE_AMOUNT

This item is administered to respondents that reported receiving rent from someone outside the household or from an employer (RENTOUTSIDE=1).


RENTPAID_P*

This item is looped for each person age 15 or older in the household (ADULT[PERSON]=1).


RENTPAID_CONF

This item is read if the sum of the amounts paid by all sources is different than the total amount paid last month (RENTPAID_P* + RENTASSIST_AMOUNT + RENTOUTSIDE_AMOUNT <> RENTPAID_AMT).




Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Of the (amount from question 30 above) rent you reported, how much is paid out of pocket by this household?

Enter Amount $_____________


2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.




Rationale



Some users imputed the value of rental assistance by taking the difference between the “monthly rent” and the total amount paid; however, pretesting as part of the 2020+ redesign showed that some tenants receive contributions to the rent that fall outside of the legacy list of rental assistance, such as through employer programs or help from a family member. Subject matter experts determined that these were important data that should be captured directly. These edits were deemed particularly important given stakeholder concerns about respondents that reported a “monthly rent” that was greater than the household’s monthly income (i.e., a rent burden of 100% or more).

Pretesting also showed that many respondents may be unable to accurately report on the contributions of other household members (e.g., roommates) and that reporting only a total amount paid by the “household” was cognitively burdensome. For this reason, the NYCHVS now asks how much was paid by each adult. When the respondent is unable to answer on behalf of another member of the household, field representatives will seek to gather than information directly from that individual, either at the time of the face-to-face interview or as a follow-up by phone.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.





Recode Usage



These items are used in several recodes, including contract rent burden, receipt of rental assistance, and out-of-pocket rent. Additional recodes related to rental costs may be available in future cycles of the NYCHVS.


Why Different Rent Paid

Variable name

Data file

Less rent (no money)

LESSRENT_REAS_NOMONEY

Occupied

Less rent (withheld rent)

LESSRENT_REAS_ESCROW

Occupied

Less rent (rent assistance)

LESSRENT_REAS_PROGRAM

Occupied

Less rent (court order)

LESSRENT_REAS_COURT

Occupied

Less rent (other)

LESSRENT_REAS_OTH

Occupied

More rent (court order)

MORERENT_REAS_COURT

Occupied

More rent (back rent)

MORERENT_REAS_PASTRENT

Occupied

More rent (fees)

MORERENT_REAS_FEES

Occupied

More rent (rent increase)

MORERENT_REAS_RENO

Occupied

More rent (paid in advance)

MORERENT_REAS_ADV

Occupied

More rent (other)

MORERENT_REAS_OTH

Occupied

Additional rent owed

LATERENT_OWEADD

Occupied

Rent owed

LATERENT_OWE

Occupied

Rent owed, amount

LATERENT_OWEAMT

Occupied



Which of the following describes why you paid less last month?



[Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 3]

1. There was not enough money to pay what was due
2. Payment was withheld because of poor conditions in the apartment/ house
3. The rental assistance program that pays rent did not send any/all of the payment
4. A court or housing agency lowered the rent
5. Another reason




Which of the following describes why you paid more last month?


[Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 4]

1. A court or housing agency increased the rent

2. Rent due from previous months

3. Additional/ temporary fees

4. Rent increase from work done to the building/ apartment

5. Rent paid in advance

6. Another reason



Do you owe any additional rent that's more than 30 days past due?

1. Yes
2. No




Do you owe any rent that's more than 30 days past due?

1. Yes
2. No




How much do you owe?

Enter Amount


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

LESSRENT_REAS_*

Enter all that apply, separate with commas.

Interviewer Instruction: Show Flashcard XXXX


MORERENT_REAS_*

Enter all that apply, separate with commas.

Interviewer Instruction: Show Flashcard XXXX


LATERENT_OWEAMT


Interviewer note: Include all rent that's more than 30 days past due



Administration (Universe Description)




LESSRENT_REAS_NOMONEY

LESSRENT_REAS_ESCROW

LESSRENT_REAS_PROGRAM

LESSRENT_REAS_COURT

LESSRENT_REAS_OTH


This item is administered if the respondent reported paying a lesser amount in rent than what was due last month ((RENT_AMOUNT <> DK/RF and RENTPAID_AMOUNT <> DK/RF) and RENTPAID_AMOUNT< RENT_AMOUNT ).


LATERENT_OWEADD


RENTPAID_AMOUNT< RENT_AMOUNT or LATERENT=1


LATERENT_OWE


(RENTPAID_AMOUNT> RENT_AMOUNT or RENTPAID=1) or LATERENT=1


MORERENT_REAS_COURT

MORERENT_REAS_PASTRENT

MORERENT_REAS_FEES

MORERENT_REAS_RENO

MORERENT_REAS_ADV

MORERENT_REAS_OTH


This item is administered if the respondent reported paying more in rent than what was due last month ((RENT_AMOUNT <> DK/RF and RENTPAID_AMOUNT <> DK/RF) and RENTPAID_AMOUNT> RENT_AMOUNT ).


LATERENT_OWE


This item is administered if the respondent reported paying more rent than was due last month or paid their rent last month ((RENTPAID_AMOUNT> RENT_AMOUNT or RENTPAID=1) or LATERENT=1 )


LATERENT_OWEAMT


This item is administered if the respondent reported owing any rent that is 30 days past due (LATERENT_OWEADD=1 or LATERENT_OWE=1)



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire


LATERENT_OWE, LATERENT_OWEADD, and LATERENT_OWEAMT were not in the 2021 instrument. The other questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.




Rationale



Previously, the NYCHVS captured the amount paid using a single item, “Of the (AMOUNT) rent you reported, how much is paid out of pocket by this household?” Pretesting showed that this question was difficult for some respondents to answer. Households that paid more than the “monthly rent” were unable to answer the question as phrased. The lack of reference period also caused confusion for households that were currently paying less than the “monthly rent” due to a court order, rent reduction, or because they did not have enough money to pay the full amount. For these reasons, questions were added in 2021 to capture the amount paid to the landlord and reasons why the rent paid was more or less than what was due last month.

Stakeholders expressed interest in gathering information about displacement and the risk of displacement, including evictions. In 2021, questions on late payments and housing court proceedings were adapted from the NYC Housing and Neighborhood Study (NYCHANS), an in-person interview conducted with low-income New Yorkers, for the 2021 NYCHVS.

Information about the number of late rent payments captured by the NYCHVS 2021 was not sufficient to understand rental debt. Additional questions on the total rent owed were added in 2023 to provide the means to distinguish between respondents who pay rent in full (but late) and those who have rental debt.

Recode Usage



These items are used in several recodes, including contract rent burden, receipt of rental assistance, and out-of-pocket rent. Additional recodes related to rental costs may be available in future cycles of the NYCHVS.



Eviction

Variable name

Data file

Housing court action

LASTEVICTIONACTION

Occupied

Housing court action, residence

LASTEVICTIONACTION_WHERE

Occupied

Result at housing court

LASTEVICTIONACTION_END

Occupied


Since March 1 2020, did the landlord start an eviction proceeding against [you/you or the people that live with you]? You may have received something like this.


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 5



1. Yes

2. No

3. No, I owned my home


Was that at your current [apartment/house] or a previous place you lived?

1. Current apartment/house
2. Previous residence


What was the result of that eviction proceeding?


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 6


1. Settled or discontinued and continued to live there

2. Evicted

3. Settled by leaving

4. Took payment for leaving

5. Ongoing

6. Other






Scripting



Before EVICTION and EVICTIONACTION:

Still thinking about the last place you lived...


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

LASTEVICTIONACTION


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard


Interviewer note: Do not include places where they were staying on a temporary basis




LASTEVICTIONACTION_END



IF NEEDED: If there were multiple cases, please think of the most recent eviction proceeding.


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard




Administration (Universe Description)




LASTEVICTIONACTION

This item is asked of respondents who currently rent their home (RENTER =1).


LASTEVICTIONACTION_END

This item is asked of respondents who reported having an eviction proceeding at the last place they lived (LASTEVICTIONACTION = 1).


Source(s)

American Housing Survey (AHS)




Did you, or a person you were staying with, receive an eviction notice while living at this place?

1. Yes

2. No

After you received the eviction notice did you, or a person you were staying with, go to court?

1. Yes

2. No

When you went to court were you, or a person you were staying with, ordered to move?

1. Yes

2. No

(After you received the eviction notice,) did you or a person you were staying with move away from this place before going to court?

1. Yes

2. No

Did you, or a person you were staying with, work something out with your landlord?

1. Yes

2. No

Did you move away from this place because your landlord told you, or a person you were staying with, to leave?

1. Yes

2. No


Source(s)

Milwaukie Area Renters Study (MARS)


An eviction is when your landlord forces you to move when you don't want to. Were [you/ you or a person you were staying with] evicted?


A landlord might force you to move because you didn't pay your rent, because you damaged the property, or for any number of other reasons. Sometimes a landlord gives you a paper, or tapes a paper to your door, saying you have to move. Sometimes you go to court; other times you don't. Whatever the case, an eviction happens when you move out because a landlord makes you.

1. Yes

2. No


NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire


These questions were asked as part of the COVID-19 module in 2021.



Rationale



Stakeholder and expert review identified the need to collect information about eviction from the last place lived as a means of examining the prevalence of housing court actions and displacement. For this reason, a question was developed that more precisely defines an eviction proceeding, including visual cues of common court documents that respondents receive in New York City.

The reference period used for questions about eviction is maintained from 2021 and is defined by the start of COVID-19 in New York City. This will allow for consistent measures longitudinally through the 2020 decade.

Recode Usage



N/A





Inability to Pay Rent

Variable name

Data file

Rental assistance (COVID)

RENTASSIST_COV

Occupied

Alternative payment (credit)

RENTPAIDBY_CREDIT

Occupied

Alternative payment (savings)

RENTPAIDBY_SAVINGS

Occupied

Alternative payment (loan)

RENTPAIDBY_LOAN

Occupied

Alternative payment (sale)

RENTPAIDBY_ASSET

Occupied

Alternative payment (other)

RENTPAIDBY_OTHER


Alternative payment (none)

RENTPAIDBY_NONE

Occupied

Rent by credit paid same month

RENTCREDIT_PAIDOFF

Occupied


Have you received any of the following?

Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 7

1. Emergency Rental Assistance Program (ERAP)
2. Forgiveness from your landlord
3. COVID Rent Relief Program (RRP)
4. Other COVID relief program to help with housing costs



In the last year, did [you/you and the people you live with] pay all or part of the rent by doing any of the following:


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 8

1. Charged a credit card

2. Paid out of savings

3. Borrowed money

4. Sold something

5. Other

6. None of the above


Was the credit card paid off in the same month?


1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text






RENTPAIDBY


[INTERVIEWER: Show Response Card B58.7]

Enter all that apply, separate with commas.



Administration (Universe Description)




RENTASSIST_COV

RENTPAIDBY_CREDIT

RENTPAIDBY_SAVINGS

RENTPAIDBY_LOAN

RENTPAIDBY_ASSET

RENTPAIDBY_OTHER

RENTPAIDBY_NONE


This item is asked of all renters in occupied units.

RENTCREDIT_PAIDOFF

This item is asked of respondents who reported paying rent with a credit card (RENTPAIDBY_CREDIT=1).



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A

RENTASSIST_COV was not part of the 2021 questionnaire. The other questions were fielded in 2021, with a minor change made to one question. See the 2021 question below:



In the last year, did [you/you and the people you live with] pay all or part of the rent by doing any of the following:


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard

1. Charged a credit card

2. Paid out of savings

3. Borrowed money

4. Sold something

5. None of the above



Rationale



An item on ways rent gets covered serves as a valuable indicator for households that may be at risk of falling behind on rent and being evicted. It also provides additional information for households that may otherwise seem like they are paying more in rent than they have in income. While it may initially seem impossible, this item can tell researchers whether respondents are going in debt or selling items to get by.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 instrument.


For 2023, an additional question was added on rental assistance progams related to the COVID-19 pandemic. This question will provide valuable information on NYC’s recovery and the way the New Yorkers are covering housing costs.



Recode Usage



N/A


Owner Costs




Homeownership

Variable name

Data file

Persons who own unit

OWNER_P1-OWNER_P15

Occupied

First time homeowner

FIRSTTIMEOWNER

Occupied

Year acquired

PURCHASEYEAR

Occupied

Purchase price

PURCHASEPRICE

Occupied

Down payment amount

DOWNPAY_AMT

Occupied


Who currently owns the [apartment/house]?



1. Person 1 (respondent)

2. Person 2

3. Person 3

4. Person 4

5. Person 5

6. Person 6

7. Person 7

8. Person 8

9. Person 9

10. Person 10

11. Person 11

12. Person 12

13. Person 13

14. Person 14

15. Person 15

100. Co-owned by someone outside of the household




[Have you/ Have you or Person*/Has Person*/ Have Person* or Person*] owned an apartment or house before?

1. Yes

2. No


In what year did [you/you and Person*/Person*/Person* and Person*] [buy/inherit] the [apartment/ house]?

Enter Year ______________



What was the purchase price of the [apartment/ house]?


Enter Amount

$_____________________



What was the down payment for the [apartment/ house]?


Enter Amount

$_____________________



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text

OWNER_P


Enter all that apply, separate with commas.



PURCHASEPRICE


Interviewer Note: Record actual purchase price and not current market value


DOWNPAY_AMOUNT



Interviewer Note: If no down payment, enter $0

Interviewer Note: If purchased in all cash, enter the purchase price.

READ IF NEEDED: What was the total down payment from all sources? Your best guess is fine.


Administration (Universe Description)




OWNER_P*

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


FIRSTTIMEOWNER

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


PURCHASEYEAR

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


PURCHASEPRICE

This item is asked of owners that did not inherit the unit (INHERIT=2).


DOWNPAY_AMT

This item is asked of owners that did not inherit the unit (INHERIT=2).



Source(s)

American Housing Survey

NYCHVS


Is this the first home [you/Person] have ever owned?

1. Yes

2. No


What was the purchase price for this apartment (house)?


$ _______________ .00

Don’t know


What was the down payment for this apartment (house)?

$ _______________ .00

Don’t know



NYCHVS History

Edits to legacy items (below)

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


In what year did . . . (reference person) acquire this apartment (house)?

Enter Year _____________


What was the purchase price of the [apartment/ house]?

Enter Amount

$_____________________


What was the down payment for this apartment (house)?

Enter Amount

$_____________________


NYCHVS History


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.

Rationale



In the past, the NYCHVS asked about acquisition of the house, rather than purchase, to include respondents who rented the home prior to conversion / purchase. Pretesting for the 2020+ redesign showed that some respondents were confused by this terminology. For increased precision in data related to homeownership, the NYCHVS will instead ask about year the unit was purchased. Information on respondents who lived in the unit prior to purchase is still available by combining year of purchase with year moved into the unit.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



N/A



Program Participation

Variable name

Data file

Downpay. assistance (NYC)

HELPDOWNPAY_NYCPROG

Occupied

Downpay. assistance (Fed)

HELPDOWNPAY_FEDPROG

Occupied

Downpay. assistance (Fed loan)

HELPDOWNPAY_FEDLOAN

Occupied

Downpay. assistance (CBO)

HELPDOWNPAY_NONPROF

Occupied

Downpay. assistance (gift)

HELPDOWNPAY_GIFT

Occupied

Downpay. assistance (none)

HELPDOWNPAY_NONE

Occupied

Applied to housing lottery

LOTTERY_OWNER

Occupied

Income restricted

INCOMEQUALIFY_OWNER

Occupied


Did any of the following help with the down payment?

Check all that apply


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 9

1. NYC program or grant

2. Federal program or grant

3. Federal homebuyer loan

4. Non-Profit assistance

5. Gift or personal loan

6. None



Did you or anyone you live with apply to a housing lottery to get your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No


[Separate from any down payment assistance, did/Did] you or anyone you live with have to show that your income was BELOW a certain amount to get your [apartment/house]?

1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


INCOMEQUALIFY_OWNER


If Needed: This may have been to your building’s developer or to a housing agency, such as HPD or HDC.



Administration (Universe Description)




HELPDOWNPAY_NYCPROG

HELPDOWNPAY_FEDPROG

HELPDOWNPAY_FEDLOAN

HELPDOWNPAY_NONPROF

HELPDOWNPAY_GIFT

HELPDOWNPAY_NONE

This item is asked of owners that were first time homeowners that reported paying a down payment (DOWNPAY_AMT>0).


LOTTERY_OWNER


This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


INCOMEQUALIFY_OWNER

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire

These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.





Rationale



Stakeholders expressed interest in knowing about first time homeownership as well as down payment assistance. To support these user groups, an item on first time homeownership was adapted from the AHS and a new question about local, federal, or other down payment assistance was developed for 2021.

Information on housing lotteries and income qualification are used to categorize different types of subsidized housing using a combination of self-report and administrative records.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



N/A



Housing Debt Type

Variable name

Data file

First mortgage

HDEBT_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Second mortgage

HDEBT_SECONDMORT

Occupied

HELOC

HDEBT_HELOC

Occupied

Home equity loan

HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Reverse mortgage

HDEBT_REVMORT

Occupied

Other housing debt

HDEBT_OTHER

Occupied

No mortgage

HDEBT_NONE

Occupied

Confirmation of no mortgage

HDEBT_NONE_CONF

Occupied


Which of the following [do you/do you and Person*/does Person*/do Person* and Person*] have?


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 10


1. First Mortgage

2. Second Mortgage

3. Home Equity Line of Credit

4. Home Equity Loan

5. Reverse Mortgage

6. Something else

7. None of these




Just to confirm, there is no current mortgage for the [apartment/house]. Is that correct?


1. Yes

2. No



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


HDEBT_*



Interviewer Note: Do not include commercial mortgages

Enter all that apply, separate with commas.

[INTERVIEWER: Show Response Card B8]




Administration (Universe Description)




HDEBT_NONE_CONF

This item is used to confirm respondents that reported having no first or second mortgage (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT <> 1 and HDEBT_SECONDMORT <> 1).





Source(s)

American Housing Survey


What is your total credit limit on the line of credit for the Fill from NUMMORTG mortgage or loan Month that the mortgage was obtained The Year Mortgage was obtained?

Round to the nearest whole dollar

Enter 9999998 for $9,999,998 or more


NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Is there a mortgage, home equity loan, or similar loan on this apartment (house) or is this apartment (house) owned free and clear?

1. Mortgage, Home Equity, or similar loan

2. Owned free and clear


2021 Questionnaire


These questions were unchanged from the 2021 instrument.

Rationale



Prior to the 2020+ redesign, stakeholders identified an ongoing need for information on homeownership debt and risks of displacement, including foreclosure. They also expressed interest in housing wealth and equity. The legacy items in the NYCHVS provide information on overall costs, but lack granularity by type of loan. Pretesting showed that when there is more than one type of debt it is difficult for respondents to answer questions that ask about the overall costs across loans. For these reasons, the NYCHVS will follow the same structure used in the AHS which loops questions by each loan.

Additional items, including reverse mortgage and refinance, were added in 2021 to ensure comprehensive information about homeownership behavior in New York City which is either not available through other sources or is not available along with other data collected in the NYCHVS, such as demographics, household composition, and housing quality.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



N/A

Housing Debt Costs

Variable name

Data file

Payment (first mortgage)

PAY_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Payment (second mortgage)

PAY_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Payment (HELOC)

PAY_HELOC

Occupied

Payment (home equity loan)

PAY_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Payment (other home debt)

PAY_OTHER

Occupied

Frequency (first mortgage)

FREQPAY_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Frequency (second mortgage)

FREQPAY_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Frequency (HELOC)

FREQPAY_HELOC

Occupied

Frequency (home equity loan)

FREQPAY_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Frequency (other home debt)

FREQPAY_OTHER

Occupied

Other payment plan

FREQPAYOTH_FIRSTMORT-FREQPAYOTH_OTHER

Occupied

HELOC value

HDEBT_HELOC_LIMIT

Occupied


How much was the most recent payment for the first mortgage?

How much was the most recent payment for the second mortgage?

How much was the most recent payment for the HELOC?

How much was the most recent payment for the home equity loan?

How much was the most recent payment for the other loan?



Enter Amount

$_____________________



How often Do you/Do you and the owners/Do the owners make a payment on the first mortgage?

How often Do you/Do you and the owners/Do the owners make a payment on the second mortgage?

How often Do you/Do you and the owners/Do the owners make a payment on the HELOC?

How often Do you/Do you and the owners/Do the owners make a payment on the home equity loan?

How often Do you/Do you and the owners/Do the owners make a payment on the other loan?


1. Once a month

2. Twice a month

3. Every two weeks

4. Something else


Specify how often you/you and the owners, the owners make a payment on the first mortgage.

Specify how often you/you and the owners, the owners make a payment on the second mortgage.

Specify how often you/you and the owners, the owners make a payment on the HELOC.

Specify how often you/you and the owners, the owners make a payment on the home equity loan.

Specify how often you/you and the owners, the owners make a payment on the other loan.


Enter Frequency

______________________



What is the total credit limit on the HELOC?



Enter Amount

$_____________________



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text



PAY_*

Interviewer Note: Enter the number of times per year.






Administration (Universe Description)




PAY_FIRSTMORT

This item is asked of owners that reported having a first mortgage (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT=1).


PAY_SECONDMORT

This item is asked of owners that reported having a second mortgage (HDEBT_SECONDMORT=1).


PAY_HELOC

This item is asked of owners that reported having a home equity line of credit (HDEBT_HELOC=1).


PAY_HOMEEQUITY

This item is asked of owners that reported having a home equity loan (HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY=1).


PAY_OTHER

This item is asked of owners that reported having another type of housing debt (HDEBT_OTHER=1).


FREQPAY_FIRSTMORT

This item is asked of owners that reported having a first mortgage (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT=1).


FREQPAY_SECONDMORT

This item is asked of owners that reported having a second mortgage (HDEBT_SECONDMORT=1).


FREQPAY_HELOC

This item is asked of owners that reported having a home equity line of credit (HDEBT_HELOC=1).


FREQPAY_HOMEEQUITY

This item is asked of owners that reported having a home equity loan (HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY=1).


FREQPAY_OTH

This item is asked of owners that reported having another type of housing debt (HDEBT_OTHER=1).


FREQPAYOTH_*

This item is asked of owners that reported making payments on a different schedule than specified (FREQPAY_*=4).



HDEBT_HELOC_LIMIT


This item is asked of respondents that reported having a Home Equity Line of Credit (HDEBT_HELOC_LIMIT=1).


Source(s)

American Housing Survey


Looking at your statement, how much is your current payment on the Fill from NUMMORTG mortgage or loan? Include as much Principal, Interest, Taxes, and Insurance (PITI) as they pay. Round to the nearest whole dollar.

Enter 99998 for $99,998 or more For Home Equity Line of Credit where there is no balance enter a 1.


How often do you make a payment on your Fill from NUMMORTG mortgage or loan Month that the mortgage was obtained The Year Mortgage was obtained?

1. Once a month?

2. Twice a month?

3. Every two weeks?

4. Something else (specify)?



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


What are the current monthly mortgage or loan payments on this apartment (house)? Include payments on first, second, home equity loan, and any other mortgages.

Enter Amount:

$___________________


2021 Questionnaire


HDEBT_HELOC_LIMIT was administered earlier in the instrument in 2021. All other questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.




Rationale



As part of the 2020+ redesign, stakeholders identified an ongoing need for information on homeownership debt and risks of displacement, including foreclosure. They also expressed interest in housing wealth and equity. The legacy items in the NYCHVS provide information on overall costs, but lack granularity by type of loan. Pretesting showed that when there is more than one type of debt it is difficult for respondents to answer questions that ask about the overall costs across loans. For these reasons, the NYCHVS follows the same structure used in the AHS which loops questions by each loan.

Additional items, including reverse mortgage and refinance, were added in 2021 to ensure comprehensive information about homeownership behavior in New York City which is either not available through other sources or is not available along with other data collected in the NYCHVS, such as demographics, household composition, and housing quality.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



N/A




Principle and Interest

Variable name

Data file

Remaining (first mortgage)

TOTAL_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Remaining (second mortgage)

TOTAL_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Remaining (HELOC)

TOTAL_HELOC

Occupied

Remaining (home equity loan)

TOTAL_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Remaining (other)

TOTAL_OTHER


Rate (first mortgage)

INT1_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Rate (second mortgage)

INT1_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Rate (HELOC)

INT1_HELOC

Occupied

Rate (home equity loan)

INT1_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Rate (home equity loan)

INT1_OTHER

Occupied

Rate 2 (first mortgage)

INT2_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Rate 2 (second mortgage)

INT2_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Rate 2 (HELOC)

INT2_HELOC

Occupied

Rate 2 (home equity loan)

INT2_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Rate 2 (home equity loan)

INT2_OTHER

Occupied

Fixed rate (first mortgage)

FIXED_FIRSTMORT

Occupied

Fixed rate (second mortgage)

FIXED_SECONDMORT

Occupied

Fixed rate (HELOC)

FIXED_HELOC

Occupied

Fixed rate (home equity loan)

FIXED_HOMEEQUITY

Occupied

Fixed rate (home equity loan)

FIXED_OTHER

Occupied


What is the outstanding principal balance on the [LOAN]?


Enter Amount

$_____________________



What is the current interest rate on the [LOAN]?



Enter %

_____________



(What is the current interest rate on the [LOAN]? - Fraction)


Round down to nearest 1/8 percent


0. 0 - no fraction

1. 1/8 (.125%)

2. 1/4 (.25%)

3. 3/8 (.375%)

4. 1/2 (.5%)

5. 5/8 (.625%)

6. 3/4 (.75%)

7. 7/8 (.875%)





Is the interest rate fixed?

1. Yes

2. No



Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


TOTAL_*


IF NEEDED: If it would help, you can look at your statement or account.


Interviewer note: For Home Equity Line of Credit where there is no balance enter a 0.


INT1_*

INT2_*


Interviewer note: For Home Equity Line of Credit where there is no balance enter a 1.


Interviewer note: For example, 6 1/4%: Enter whole number 6 for HODEBT_*_INT1 and the fraction for HODEBT_*_INT2


For HODEBT_*_INT2, round down to nearest 1/8 percent


FIXED_*

Interviewer Note: Fixed interest for the life of the loan. Answer "No" if resident has an Adjustable Rate Mortgage that is fixed for period of time only


Administration (Universe Description)




TOTAL_*

This item is asked of owners that reported having one or more type of home debt (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT = 1 or HDEBT_SECONDMORT = 1 or HDEBT_HELOC = 1 or HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY = 1 or HDEBT_OTHER = 1).


INT1_*

INT2_*


This item is asked of owners that reported having one or more type of home debt (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT = 1 or HDEBT_SECONDMORT = 1 or HDEBT_HELOC = 1 or HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY = 1 or HDEBT_OTHER = 1).

FIXED_*

This item is asked of owners that reported having one or more type of home debt (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT = 1 or HDEBT_SECONDMORT = 1 or HDEBT_HELOC = 1 or HDEBT_HOMEEQUITY = 1 or HDEBT_OTHER = 1).



Source(s)

American Housing Survey


[VUNPBAL] What is the amount you still owe on this mortgage or loan? That is, what is the unpaid principal balance?



Enter $ __________________


Looking at your statement, what is the current interest rate on the Fill from NUMMORTG mortgage or loan?

For example 6 1/4%: Enter whole number 6 here on this screen and the fraction on next screen For Home Equity Line of Credit where there is no balance enter a 1.





Enter % _____


(Looking at your statement, what is the interest rate on the Fill from NUMMORTG mortgage or loan? - Fraction)

Round down to nearest 1/8 percent

For Home Equity Line of Credit where there is no balance enter a 1. 0. 0 - no fraction



1. 1/8 (.125%)

2. 1/4 (.25%)

3. 3/8 (.375%)

4. 1/2 (.5%)

5. 5/8 (.625%)

6. 3/4 (.75%)

7. 7/8 (.875%)


Is the interest rate currently fixed?

1. Yes

2. No


NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


When did the most recent mortgage or loan on this apartment (house) originate?

Enter Year ___________


What is the current interest rate on the most recent mortgage or loan on this apartment (house)?


Enter Interest Rate:

______ . ______ %


2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.





Rationale



As part of the 2020+ redesign, stakeholders identified an ongoing need for information on homeownership debt and risks of displacement, including foreclosure. They also expressed interest in housing wealth and equity. The legacy items in the NYCHVS provide information on overall costs, but lack granularity by type of loan. Pretesting showed that when there is more than one type of debt it is difficult for respondents to answer questions that ask about the overall costs across loans. For these reasons, the NYCHVS follows the same structure used in the AHS which loops questions by each loan.

Additional items, including reverse mortgage and refinance, were added in 2021 to ensure comprehensive information about homeownership behavior in New York City which is either not available through other sources or is not available along with other data collected in the NYCHVS, such as demographics, household composition, and housing quality.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



N/A

Other Homeowner Costs

Variable name

Data file

Homeowner insurance costs

HINSURE_AMT

IUF Only

Covered by flood insurance

HFLOODINSURE

Occupied

Flood insurance costs

HFLOODINSURE_AMT

Occupied

Property tax costs

PROPTAX_AMT

IUF Only

Late mortgage payments

LATEMORTGAGE

Occupied

Condo / coop fees

COOPCONDOFEE

IUF Only

Assessment in last year

ASSESSMENT

Occupied

Assessment amount

ASSESSMENT_AMT

Occupied

SCHE / DHE

SCHE_DHE

Occupied


How much did [you/you and Person*/Person*/Person* and Person*] pay for homeowner's insurance last year?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

888888888 Paid as part of the mortgage

999999999 No insurance



Is the [apartment/ house] covered by flood insurance?

1. Yes

2. No



How much did [you/you and Person*/Person*/Person* and Person*] pay for flood insurance last year?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

888888888 Paid as part of the mortgage




How much were the property taxes for your [apartment/house] last year?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

777777777 Paid as part of the condominium or homeowners association fees

888888888 Paid as part of the mortgage




In the last year, [were you/were you and Person*/was Person*/were Person* and Person*] ever late making the regular mortgage payment because there was not enough money at the time?

1. Yes

2. No


Last month, what were the [condo/co-op] maintenance fees for the [apartment/ house]?



Enter Amount

$_____________________



In the last year, have [you/ you or anyone else you live with] paid an assessment on the [condo/co-op]?



1. Yes

2. No



Last year, how much did [you/ you or anyone else you live with] pay in assessments? This could be either all at once or smaller amounts paid over time.

Enter Amount

$_____________________



Are [you/you and the people you live with] receiving a Homeowner's Exemption as part of the SCHE or DHE program?



1. Yes

2. No


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


HINSURE_AMT

HFLOODINSURE_AMT


Interviewer note: Do not take a monthly amount and multiply by 12. If needed, ask respondent to specify number of months


PROPTAX_AMT


Interviewer Note: Enter amount due, not what was paid



COOPCONDOFEE



Interviewer Note: Exclude payments for any mortgage (loans) on the [condo/ co-op].



ASSESSMENT

IF NEEDED: An assessment is a temporary charge that is in addition to your maintenance fees. For example, it can be used to cover a one-time expense or a major repair or improvement.



SCHE_DHE


Interviewer Note:

These are programs that lower housing costs for owners of 1-3 family homes, condos, or co-ops. SCHE refers to the Senior Citizen Homeowners' Exemption. DHE refers to the Disabled Homeowners' Exemption.




Administration (Universe Description)




HINSURE_AMT

This item is asked of owners where the first household member to move in has been in the sampled unit for at least one full calendar year (OWNER = 1 and YEARSSINCEMOVEIN_MAX >=2).


HFLOODINSURE

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).


HFLOODINSURE_AMT

This item is asked of owners that reported being covered by flood insurance (HFLOODINSURE=1) and where the first household member to move in has been in the sampled unit for at least one full calendar year (YEARSSINCEMOVEIN_MAX >=2).


PROPTAX_AMT

This item is asked of owners that do not live in a cooperative (OWNER=1 and COOP=2).


LATEMORTGAGE

This item is asked of owners that reported having a first mortgage (HDEBT_FIRSTMORT=1).


COOPCONDOFEE

This item is asked of owners that live in a coop or condo (OWNER=1 and CONDO or COOP = 1).


ASSESSMENT

This item is asked of owners that live in a coop or condo (OWNER=1 and CONDO or COOP = 1).


ASSESSMENT_AMT

This item is asked of owners that reported having an assessment (ASSESSMENT=1).


SCHE_DHE

This item is asked of all owners in occupied units (OWNER=1).



Source(s)

N/A


Homeowners insurance policies do not cover flood damages caused by excessive rain. A homeowner who desires this coverage must purchase a separate policy.


Do you have flood insurance?

1. Yes

2. No



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


What are the monthly condominium or co-op maintenance fees for this apartment (house)? Exclude payments for any mortgages (loans) on this unit.

Enter Amount

$_____________________



Is any household member receiving a Senior Citizen Carrying Charge Increase Exemption as part of the SCRIE program?

1. Yes

2. No


Is the fire and liability insurance premium for this apartment (house) paid separately?

1. Yes

2. No, included in mortgage or loan payment

3. No insurance


What was the cost of fire and liability insurance for [Year of Interview – 1]?

Enter Amount

$_____________________



Are the real estate taxes for this apartment (house) paid separately?

1. Yes

2. No, included in mortgage or loan payment

3. No, included in condominium or maintenance fee


What were the real estate taxes for [Year of Interview – 1]?


Enter Amount

$_____________________





2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.





Rationale



Expert review and observations of the 2017 NYCHVS field operations signaled that there was no reason to ask whether insurance or real estate were paid separately (field representatives often did not read these questions out loud to respondents). Instead, in 2021 these questions were asked as “How much…” with interviewer-coded options for respondents who did not pay these costs separately.

Stakeholder conversations with groups that work directly with low income homeowners highlighted the need to ask about flood insurance. Homeowners in high risk flood zones in New York City are required to get flood insurance. Citywide data on flood insurance prevalence and costs is valuable for City policies and outreach. Program names were updated to reflect current program names, with Disability programs included as well as those intended for Seniors. This was done to be parallel to questions regarding Senior Citizen Rent Increase Exemption (SCRIE) and Disability Rent Increase Exemption (DRIE) for renters.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



These items are combined to estimate total monthly fees for owners. Beginning in 2017, individual cost items are no longer provided in the Public Use File due to disclosure risk.




Utilities




Utility Costs

Variable name

Data file

Utilities paid (electricity)

UTIL_ELECTRIC

Occupied

Utilities paid (gas)

UTIL_GAS

Occupied

Utilities paid (heat)

UTIL_HEAT

Occupied

Utilities paid (water)

UTIL_WATER

Occupied

Utilities paid (none)

UTIL_NONE

Occupied

Utilities paid (included)

UTIL_INCLUDED

Occupied

Utility costs (summer)

UTILCOSTS_SUMMER

Occupied

Utility costs (winter)

UTILCOSTS_WINTER

Occupied

Utility costs (heat)

UTILCOSTS_HEAT

Occupied

Utility costs (water)

UTILCOSTS_WATER

Occupied


Which utilities do [you/you and the people you live with] pay?


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 11

1. Electricity

2. Cooking Gas

3. Heat

4. Water/Sewer

5. None of these

6. All utilities are included in the rent or condo/co-op fees




Last summer, how much did [you/you and the people you live with] pay in a typical month for [electricity/gas/electricity and gas]?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period




Last WINTER, how much did [you/you and the people you live with] pay in a typical month for [electricity/ gas/ electricity and gas]?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period




LAST YEAR, what was the total cost of heat?


Enter Amount

$_____________________

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period




Last year, what was the total cost of water and sewer?

Enter Amount

$_____________________

999 Respondent did not live in unit during reference period




Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


UTIL_*


Interviewer Note: Do not include cable, internet, or phone.

[INTERVIEWER: Show Response Card B36]


UTILCOST_ELEC UTILCOST_HEAT

Interviewer Note: If is paid as part of electric bill, record costs under electric costs, not heat costs. Do not take a monthly amount and multiply by 12. If needed, ask respondent to specify number of months


UTILCOSTS_SUMMER

IF NEEDED: By summer, I mean last June, July, and August


UTILCOSTS_WINTER


IF NEEDED: By winter, I mean last October through May.



Administration (Universe Description)




UTIL_*

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.


UTILCOSTS_SUMMER

UTILCOSTS_WINTER

These items are asked of all respondents who reported paying for electricity or gas (UTIL_ELECTRIC = 1 or UTIL_GAS = 1).



UTILCOSTS_HEAT

This item is asked of respondents who reported paying for heat (UTIL_HEAT=1).


UTILCOSTS_WATER


This item is asked of respondents who reported paying for water (UTIL_WATER=1).



Source(s)

New York City Housing and Neighborhood Study (NYCHANS)


Using Response Card A, which utilities does your household pay?


[A_35_1] <1/0> A. Electricity

[A_35_2] <1/0> B. Cooking Gas

[A_35_3] <1/0> C. Heat

[A_35_4] <1/0> D. Water

[A_35_5] <1/0> E. Other

[A_35_6] <1/0> F. None

[A_35_7] <1/0> G. All utilities are included in the rent



[Q_36] In a typical summer month, how much do you pay for these utilities?



Enter Amount:
$______________


[Q_37] In a typical winter month, how much do you pay for these utilities?


Enter Amount:
$______________


NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Do you pay for your own electricity?

1. Yes

2. Yes, but combined with gas

3. No, included in rent, condominium or other fee


What is the average MONTHLY cost?

Enter Amount

$_____________________



Do you pay for your own gas?

1. Yes

2. No, included in rent, condominium or other fee

3. No, gas not used


What is the average MONTHLY cost?

Enter Amount

$_____________________



What is your combined average electricity and gas payment each month?

Enter Amount

$_____________________



2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.





Rationale



The NYCHVS has historically captured information on some utilities for renters and a wider range of housing costs (such as heat and water) from owners. Expert review determined that information about utility costs could be captured more efficiently with the use of a flashcard for both renters and owners.

Prior to the 2021 survey, pretesting determined that some items required an answer option of “did not live there during reference period.” Pretesting also determined that utility costs varied considerably based on season and that an annual average was insufficient to capture cost burden. Questions on summer and winter utility costs may be used in conjunction with other items on disuse of air conditioning due to cost. Reference periods were also clarified and aligned to work in conjunction with other maintenance deficiencies and housing costs.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 instrument.



Recode Usage



Utility costs are used with contract rent to estimate gross rental costs. Utility costs are also combined with owner costs to estimate total monthly owner costs.




Inability to Pay Bills

Variable name

Data file

Service interrupted (utilities)

INTERUPT_UTIL

Occupied

Service interrupted (landline)

INTERUPT_PHONE

Occupied

Service interrupted (cell phone)

INTERUPT_CELL

Occupied

Service interrupted (none)

INTERUPT_NONE

Occupied


In the last year, were any of the

following services interrupted because you

did not have enough money at the time?


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 12

1. Electricity, gas, or heat

2. Landline telephone

3. Cell phone

4. None


Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


INTERUPT_*


Interviewer Note: If respondent pays on a combined bill, check all services that were interrupted (e.g., cell and internet)

[INTERVIEWER: Show Response Card F5]



Administration (Universe Description)




INTERUPT_*

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.



Source(s)

New York City Housing and Neighborhood Study (NYCHANS)


In the last 12 months, were any of the following services interrupted because you did not have enough money at the time?


One or more utility







1. Yes

2. No


Cell Phone



1. Yes

2. No

One or more utility



1. Yes

2. No

Landline telephone

1. Yes

2. No


Cable/Internet


1. Yes

2. No

Other

1. Yes

2. No


NYCHVS History

N/A



2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 instrument.





Rationale



The item about service being interrupted due to financial reasons was added to the 2021 quesionnaire based on stakeholder feedback that delay of critical expenses was an important domain related to housing affordability. The phrasing for delay of utilities was updated to specify utilities based on translation team feedback. This item may be used on its own or in conjunction with other financial distress items (i.e., delay of healthcare for financial reasons, delay or rent/mortgage, eviction).

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing of the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



N/A

Public Benefits and Coverage




Public Assistance

Variable name

Data file

Program (Food stamps)

PA_FOOD

Occupied

Program (SNAP)

PA_SNAP

Occupied

Program (WIC)

PA_WIC

Occupied

Program (Cash Assistance)

PA_CA

Occupied

Program (TANF)

PA_TANF

Occupied

Program (SNA)

PA_SNA

Occupied

Program (Shelter Allowance)

PA_SHELTER

Occupied

Program (Public Assistance)

PA_PA

Occupied

Program (Disability)

PA_DIS

Occupied

Program (SSI)

PA_SSI

Occupied

Program (SSDI)

PA_SSDI

Occupied

Program (disability pension)

PA_DISPEN

Occupied

Program (Other)

PA_OTH

Occupied

Program (HRA)

PA_OTHHRA

Occupied

Program (NYC)

PA_OTHCITY

Occupied

Program (NY State)

PA_OTHSTATE

Occupied

Program (Federal)

PA_OTHFED

Occupied


Last month, did [you/ you or anyone else who lives with you] receive assistance or payments from any of the following?


Interviewer Note: Show Flashcard 13

100. (A) Food Assistance

101. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)/Food Stamps/EBT

102. Women, Infants and Children (WIC)

200. (B) Cash Assistance

203. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

204. Safety Net Assistance (SNA)

205. Shelter Allowance

206. Public Assistance

300. (C) Disability Benefits

307. Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

308. Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI)

309. Disability Pension

400. (D) Other Benefits

410. Another HRA program

411. Another New York City program

412. Another New York State program

413. Another Federal program

994.

No





Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


PA_*



If respondent is unable to itemize specific programs, enter *00 answer choice (category). Do not count rental or housing assistance.

Enter all that apply, separate with commas

[INTERVIEWER: Show Response Card P1]



Administration (Universe Description)




PA_*

This item is asked of all respondents in occupied units.



Source(s)

N/A



NYCHVS History

1991, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017


Does anyone in this household (including children under age 15) receive public assistance or welfare payments from any of the following?




Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), or Family Assistance

1. Yes

2. No



Safety Net Assistance

1. Yes

2. No



Supplemental Security Income (SSI), including aid to the blind or disabled

1. Yes

2. No



Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)

1. Yes

2. No



Women, Infants and Children (WIC)

1. Yes

2. No



Other

1. Yes

2. No





2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.





Rationale



The legacy form of this item has evolved over time, with the addition of SNAP and WIC in 2017. Field testing and subject matter experts confirmed that many respondents may not know the official name(s) of the public assistance program(s) in which they or others in their household participate. Successive rounds of field testing were used to generate a list of program names from respondents that was used to create the response options used in the revised NYCHVS question and corresponding flash card.

By design, variations in program name are listed to enable respondents to indicate programs known by another acronym or designation. Field testing of this revised item performed well, with lower rates of non-response. Testing also showed that many respondents consider disability benefits, particularly SSI and SSDI, as a public assistance program, rather than income. On recommendation of the field interview team, these sources of income were moved from the personal income question to this public assistance item. Additional headers were created so that respondents who were unsure of the specific program could answer by category (e.g., “some type of cash assistance”) without introducing unnecessary error.

These answer items are used to pipe a following item on amount received in such a way as to increase respondent understanding, reduce cognitive burden, and reduce item non-response.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 questionnaire.



Recode Usage



Programs are collapsed based on category, rather than itemized programs. Those that are classified as income on the American Community Survey (ACS) are recoded as such.







Public Assistance Income

Variable name

Data file

Benefits (Food stamps)

PA_FOOD_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (SNAP)

PA_SNAP_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (WIC)

PA_WIC_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Cash Assistance)

PA_CA_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (TANF)

PA_TANF_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits

PA_SNA_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Shelter Allowance)

PA_SHELTER_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Public Assistance)

PA_PA_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Disability)

PA_DIS_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits

PA_SSI_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (SSDI)

PA_SSDI_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (disability pension)

PA_DISPEN_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Other)

PA_OTH_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (HRA)

PA_OTHHRA_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (NYC)

PA_OTHCITY_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (NY State)

PA_OTHSTATE_AMOUNT

Occupied

Benefits (Federal)

PA_OTHFED_AMOUNT

Occupied


Last month, how much did [you/ you and anyone else who lives with you] receive from [PROGRAM]?


Enter amount:

$___________________




Scripting



N/A


Interviewer Notes and Optional Text


PA_*_AMOUNT


Interviewer Note: Record total for all members that receive the benefit

Administration (Universe Description)




PA_*_AMOUNT

This item is asked of all respondents who reported receiving public assistance. The item is looped through each program (PA_[SOURCE] = 1).



Source(s)

American Community Survey (ACS)


Mark (X) the "Yes" box for each type of income this person received, and give your best estimate of the TOTAL AMOUNT during the PAST 12 MONTHS.


(NOTE: The "past 12 months" is the period from today’s date one year ago up through today.)


Mark (X) the "No" box to show types of income NOT received. If net income was a loss, mark the "Loss" box to the right of the dollar amount.


For income received jointly, report the appropriate share for each person – or, if that’s not possible, report the whole amount for only one person and NAL C mark the "No" box for the other person.



[Other sources not listed…]

Any public assistance or welfare payments from the state or local welfare office:



Enter total amount from last 12 months:

$______________________________


NYCHVS History

N/A


2021 Questionnaire


These questions are unchanged from the 2021 questionnaire.





Rationale



Although previous NYCHVS survey cycles asked about receipt of public assistance, the amounts received from such programs was not collected. To conform to the personal income sources used in the American Community Survey (ACS), the NYCHVS now collects amounts received in addition to program participation. Unlike the ACS, the amount is requested for last month, rather than last year. Although this may result in some differences in total calculated household income, pretesting showed that this was the common way that respondents thought of the value of assistance received. The decision was therefore made to ask about a month’s value to reduce cognitive burden and non-response.

Minor edits to these items were made during programming and testing for the 2021 instrument.