NHTSA 2022 BikePed OMB Part A 6-16-22

NHTSA 2022 BikePed OMB Part A 6-16-22.docx

National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors

OMB: 2127-0684

Document [docx]
Download: docx | pdf

Information Collection Request Supporting Statements: Part A

National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors

OMB Control No. 2127-0684


Abstract: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation is seeking approval to reinstate with modification a previously approved information collection (OMB Control No. 2127-0684) to conduct the National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors (NSBPAB) by contacting an estimated 22,943 households by mail for participation. The push-to-web with mail supplement survey will be completed by a national probability sample of 7,500 U.S. adults (aged 18 and older). Participation by respondents would be voluntary. This collection only asks respondents to report their answers; there are no record-keeping costs to the respondents. The survey was reviewed by an IRB and determined to be exempt. NHTSA will use the information to produce a technical report that presents the results of the survey. The technical report will provide aggregate (summary) statistics and tables as well as the results of statistical analysis of the information, but it will not include any personally identifiable information. The purpose of the survey is to obtain up-to-date information about bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behaviors, biking and walking frequency, use of e-bikes and e-scooters, and perceptions of community investments in bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure.

The technical report will be shared with State highway safety offices, local governments, transportation planners, engineers, policymakers, researchers, educators, advocates, and others who use the data from this survey to support their work. The total estimated burden for contacting 15,443 potential participant non-responders (1,469 hours) and 309 potential pilot participant non-responders (32 hours) and contacting and recruiting 7,500 participants (2,626 hours) and 150 pilot participants (55 hours) to complete the study is 4,182 total hours. All estimates were rounded up to the nearest whole hour.

When NHTSA last received approval of this information collection, the estimated burden was 3,005 hours. The increase in burden of 1,177 hours is a result of using a larger sample and including burden not just for the estimated number of completed surveys, but also for the estimated number of contacts of potential respondents. NHTSA has conducted the NSBPAB on two previous occasions—first in 20021 and again in 2012.2 (The final reports for the 2012 administration of the survey are included as Supplemental Documents.) NHTSA is seeking approval for reinstatement of the information collection because up-to-date information is needed to identify trends across time as well as to understand emerging trends such as the rapid deployment of e-bikes and e‑scooters throughout American communities and increasing levels of distraction or inattention associated with smartphone use among all travelers. Study results should produce useful information for bicycle and pedestrian safety stakeholders. The legacy study is being redesigned to sample respondents using address data from the most recent U.S. Postal Service (USPS) computerized Delivery Sequence File (DSF) of residential addresses, and administer the survey via web and mail (replacing the former random-digit dial computer-assisted telephone interview design).


  1. Justification

  1. Explain the circumstances that make the collection of information necessary. Identify any legal and administrative requirements that necessitate the collection. Attach a copy of the appropriate section of each statute and regulation mandating or authorizing the collection of information.

a. Circumstances making the collection necessary

NHTSA was established by the Highway Safety Act of 1970 and its mission is to reduce deaths, injuries, and economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes on the nation's highways. To further this mission, NHTSA is authorized to conduct research for the development of traffic safety programs.


Vulnerable road users like pedalcyclists (primarily bicyclists) and pedestrians are almost always the most injured in road traffic collisions. In 2019, bicyclists and pedestrians comprised 20% of all road traffic fatalities (National Center for Statistics and Analysis, 2021).3 Even more notable is that these deaths occurred as the overall number of road traffic fatalities continued to trend downward. In other words, bicyclists and pedestrians are not benefitting from overall road safety gains. While drivers and passengers inside large, sophisticated vehicles are increasingly protected from unsafe behaviors and roadway conditions, vulnerable road users outside these vehicles are increasingly at risk.


The National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors (NSBPAB) collects critical population-level data that will help NHTSA understand the habits and behaviors of bicyclists and pedestrians, quantify the magnitude of bicycle and pedestrian activity across the country, and gauge the safety needs of this population. Understanding these human factors is a key component of NHTSA’s research to improve the safety of individuals in and around vehicles who are more vulnerable to injury. 


The previous NSBPAB surveys, conducted in 2002 and 2012, were designed and implemented as random-digit dialing (RDD) telephone surveys. Due to declining telephone survey response rates, NHTSA will transition this next iteration of the NSBPAB to an address-based sampling (ABS) design that encourages respondents to complete the survey online. While mail push-to-web will be the primary data collection mode, a paper questionnaire will be sent to households not responding to web invitations (along with information to access the web version) to increase response and minimize nonresponse bias.


In the 2022 survey, NHTSA intends to examine the extent to which pedestrians and bicyclists engage in walking and biking activities, as well as the barriers and threats encountered by these populations. Furthermore, NHTSA plans to assess whether self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions regarding such topics as activity levels, road conditions, infrastructure facilities, and technologies have changed over time since the administration of the prior two national surveys. The 2022 survey will also include new questions on emerging technologies (e-bikes, e-scooters), facilities usage, distraction, and the needs of individuals with disabilities. The findings from this proposed information collection will assist NHTSA in designing, targeting, and implementing programs intended to increase the safety of all road users, including pedestrians and bicyclists, and will provide data to States, localities, planning, and outreach agencies that will aid in their efforts to reduce pedestrian and bicyclist motor vehicle-related crashes and injuries.



b. Statute authorizing the collection of information

Title 23, United States Code, Section 403 authorizes NHTSA (by delegation) to conduct research and development activities, including demonstration projects and the collection and analysis of highway and motor vehicle safety data and related information needed to carry out this section, with respect to all aspects of highway and traffic safety systems and conditions relating to vehicle, highway, driver, passenger, motorcyclist, bicyclist, and pedestrian characteristics; accident causation and investigations; and human behavioral factors and their effect on highway and traffic safety. [See 23 U.S.C. 403(b)(1)(A)(i)-(ii); 23 U.S.C. 403(b)(1)(B)].4

  1. Indicate how, by whom, and for what purpose the information is to be used. Except for a new collection, indicate the actual use the agency has made of the information received from the current collection.

ICF, the Contractor, will conduct this study under a task order on an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity contract with NHTSA. Participation in this study will be voluntary, and participants will be sampled from all 50 States and the District of Columbia using address data from the most recent USPS DSF of residential addresses. Up-to-date information about pedestrian and bicyclist attitudes and behaviors, as well as the barriers and threats encountered by these populations will help NHTSA track trends over time and develop traffic safety countermeasures.

The survey form (NHTSA Form 1148 for English and NHTSA Form 1613 for Spanish) will be self-administered and completed either via web or paper and pencil. The first part of the form is a screener for all sampled households to determine eligibility to participate in the survey. Eligible respondents are U.S. adults (18 years old and older). The survey form will specify that the adult with the next birthday be the one to complete the survey form. Eligible respondents will be administered a questionnaire about pedestrian and bicycle attitudes and behaviors followed by demographic questions. There are four categories of respondents:

  1. Those who have walked and biked in the past year

  2. Those who walked in the past year and biked over a year ago

  3. Those who walked in the past year and have never ridden a bike

  4. Those who have never walked and never biked (Disabled)

Survey invitation materials and reminders (NHTSA Forms 1614, 1615, 1616, 1617, and 1618) will inform participants about the study and guide them through informed consent. Following consent, participants will complete a questionnaire that covers attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors regarding pedestrian and bicycle topics—referred to as the National Survey of Bicyclist and Pedestrian Attitudes and Behaviors (NHTSA Forms 1148 and 1613).

The purpose of this survey is to examine the extent to which Americans engage in walking and bicycling activity, their attitudes towards and experience with various facilities, road conditions, and technologies, and their opinions on pedestrian and bicycling safety topics.

Furthermore, NHTSA plans to measure whether self-reported behaviors, attitudes, and perceptions regarding these topics have changed over time since the previous administrations of this national survey in 2012 and 2002. The data from this study will provide NHTSA with information that will guide the development of pedestrian and bicyclist countermeasure initiatives to reduce pedestrian and bicyclist motor vehicle-related crashes and inform the work of planners and policymakers from communities across the country.


More specifically, this survey will collect detailed information important to developing effective programs, including data addressing the following areas of interest:

  • The extent to which U.S. adults engage in walking and cycling

    • Preferred days and times to engage in these activities

    • Use of illumination at night

    • Attitudes towards impaired/distracted walking and riding

  • Use of specific road facilities, such as crosswalks and bike lanes

  • Use of technology

  • Experience with collisions and injuries and perceived threats on the road

  • Neighborhood characteristics and community investment in pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure

  • Use of and attitudes towards helmets

  • Experience with safety training

  • Experience with and attitudes towards new technologies such as e-bikes and e-scooters

  • Experience of children in the household regarding bicycle safety

  • Demographic characteristics

  • Needs of individuals with disabilities

  • Trends and changes in pedestrian and bicyclist attitudes and behaviors compared to the 2002 and 2012 survey administrations.


Approximately 50% of the survey will contain new or modified questions.


Pedestrian safety and bicyclist safety are two of multiple behavioral areas for which NHTSA has developed comprehensive programs to help meet its injury reduction goals. The data collected in the survey will be used to assist NHTSA in its ongoing responsibilities for (a) planning and designing safety programs that are responsive to the public’s information needs, behavioral intentions, attitudes, physical environment, and other factors that contribute to safety while walking or bicycling; and (b) providing support to groups involved in carrying out pedestrian and bicyclist safety programs and public safety. NHTSA will use the data to help State Highway Safety Offices, law enforcement agencies, and other organizations with establishing and sustaining programs aimed at pedestrian and bicyclist safety and reducing the number of motor vehicle-related pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. The data will be used for planning and policy-related issues as they arise. The results will provide governmental agencies, private organizations, program planners, and community leaders with detailed information on walking and bicycling behavior, level of support for specific facilities, and awareness of safety issues.


  1. Describe whether, and to what extent, the collection of information involves the use of automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses, and the basis for the decision for adopting this means of collection. Also, describe any consideration of using information technology to reduce burden.

Participant data will be collected using Computer Assisted Web Interviewing (CAWI)—a programmed, self-administered web survey—with paper versions available if the participant does not respond via CAWI. CAWI systems collect responses electronically. They also perform several functions which aid in avoiding errors that occur when using hard copy questionnaires, including:

  • Providing correct question sequence;

  • Automatically executing skip patterns based on prior question answers (which decreases overall interview time and, consequently, the burden on respondents);

  • Recalling answers to prior questions and displaying the information in the text of later questions;

  • Providing random rotation of specified questions or response categories (to avoid bias);

  • Ensuring that questions cannot be skipped; and

  • Rejecting invalid responses.



The CAWI system lists questions and corresponding response categories automatically on the screen, eliminating the need for respondents to follow skip patterns and flip pages. This allows the instrument to be administered efficiently, thus reducing burden on the respondent and analysts. Moreover, the respondents enter responses directly from their keyboards or electronic devices, and the information is automatically recorded in the cloud’s memory.

CAWI surveys will be considered the default and encouraged because they employ question-skipping logic to only show the relevant questions, reducing burden because people will not see any skipped questions. This process will also improve data quality. Paper surveys will be designed to work with optical mark recognition and image scanning to facilitate ease of use and data accuracy. A separate program designed for the paper survey will include all survey skip logic. The program will detect and reconcile any inconsistent responses according to established data cleaning rules.

  1. Describe efforts to identify duplication. Show specifically why any similar information already available cannot be used or modified for use for the purposes described in Item 2 above.


NHTSA has conducted two studies about bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behaviors. The first of these studies was conducted in 2002, followed by a second study in 2012. NHTSA is seeking to conduct a new study because up-to-date information is needed to identify trends across time as well as to understand emerging trends such as the rapid deployment of e-bikes and e-scooters throughout American communities and increasing levels of distraction or inattention associated with smartphone use among all travelers.

Overall, the following criteria were applied to determine whether existing information may be duplicative:

  • Currency of information - The data must be current to have utility for making sound strategic decisions concerning future programmatic and research activities, especially regarding emerging technologies.

  • National basis - The safety efforts of NHTSA are national in scope. NHTSA, therefore, requires national-level data for its planning.

  • Focus on NHTSA program concerns - The items within the proposed survey instruments concern issues crucial to developing appropriate strategies for injuries and deaths amongst the most vulnerable road users.


After reviewing available data, NHTSA has determined that this data collection entails no duplication. This is the first nationally representative survey of bicycle and pedestrian attitudes and behavior in the past ten years, when NHTSA last conducted this survey. Since 2012, advances in technology, changes in infrastructure, and expansion of travel modes have made this collection effort essential and necessary in order to accurately gauge the extent to which the public engages in walking and biking behaviors, particularly after the anecdotal increases in both activities reported during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need to collect up-to-date information about the public’s attitudes and behavior on pedestrian and bicycle topics in order to better inform programs aimed at improving the safety of all road users. Furthermore, the collection is needed to inform trend analyses.


  1. If the collection of information impacts small businesses or other small entities, describe any methods used to minimize burden.

Questionnaire information for this study will only be collected from individuals. There is no burden on small businesses for this collection of information request.

  1. Describe the consequence to Federal program or policy activities if the collection is not conducted or is conducted less frequently, as well as any technical or legal obstacles to reducing burden.

Pedestrians and bicyclists are among the most vulnerable road users. Motor vehicle crashes in 2019 accounted for 6,205 pedestrian fatalities and 846 bicyclist fatalities. That same year, 76,000 pedestrians and 49,000 bicyclists and other cyclists were injured in traffic crashes.5 Pedestrian fatalities increased 44%6 from 2010 to 2019 and bicyclist fatalities increased 36%7 over the same time frame. This represents a significant increase in the number of nonoccupant fatalities over the course of a decade.

NHTSA encourages walking and biking as alternate modes of transportation to motor vehicle travel. Moreover, increasing safe walking and bicycling behavior is promoted as a positive contributor to the quality of life. But an increase in walking and biking often means an increase in exposure to potential risk of collision with motor vehicles, underscoring the need to have in place aggressive pedestrian and bicyclist safety programs to reduce injuries and fatalities. This in turn requires periodic data collection to assess whether the programs continue to be responsive to the public’s information needs, behavioral intentions, attitudes, physical environment, and other factors that contribute to safety while walking or bicycling.

The NSBPAB collects information on the extent to which respondents engage in bicycling and walking; demographic and typological descriptions of bicyclists and pedestrians; the extent and frequency of using electronic devices while biking or walking; attitudes and perceptions about bicycling and pedestrian activity; the availability and use of bike paths and lanes in the community; knowledge of various laws pertaining to bicyclists and pedestrians; and changes in bicyclist and pedestrian behaviors and attitudes since the previous surveys.

NHTSA provides guidance to State and local governments in designing and applying pedestrian and bicyclist safety programs to reduce motor vehicle-related pedestrian and bicyclist crashes. Pedestrian and bicyclist safety are complex problems, involving the interaction of many factors including public attitudes, road user behavior, vehicle performance and design, roadway design and characteristics, vehicle speed, and enforcement strategies. To reduce pedestrian and bicyclist crashes, fatalities, and injuries, an interdisciplinary approach involving engineering, education, and equity is needed. Findings from this survey will provide crucial information to be used in improving bicycle and pedestrian safety programs; marketing communication and educational messages that focus on the safety of all road users; soliciting the cooperation, support and leadership of traffic safety stakeholders; and providing updated usage statistics. This information is necessary to support safety programs both at the local and national levels.

  1. Explain any special circumstances that would cause an information collection to be conducted in a manner:

    1. requiring respondents to report information to the agency more often than quarterly;

    2. requiring respondents to prepare a written response to a collection of information in fewer than 30 days after receipt of it;

    3. requiring respondents to submit more than an original and two copies of any document;

    4. requiring respondents to retain records, other than health, medical, government contract, grant-in-aid, or tax records, for more than three years;

    5. in connection with a statistical survey, that is not designed to produce valid and reliable results that can be generalized to the universe of study;

    6. requiring the use of a statistical data classification that has not been reviewed and approved by OMB;

    7. that includes a pledge of confidentiality that is not supported by authority established in statute or regulation, that is not supported by disclosure and data security policies that are consistent with the pledge, or which unnecessarily impedes sharing of data with other agencies for compatible confidential use; or

    8. requiring respondents to submit proprietary trade secrets, or other confidential information unless the agency can demonstrate that it has instituted procedures to protect the information's confidentiality to the extent permitted by law.


No special circumstances require this collection to be conducted in a manner inconsistent with guidelines in 5 CFR 1320.5(d)(2).

  1. If applicable, provide a copy and identify the date and page number of publication in the Federal Register of the agency’s notice, required by 5 CFR 1320.8(d), soliciting comments on the information collection prior to submission to OMB. Summarize public comments received in response to that notice and describe actions taken by the agency in response to the comments. Specifically address comments received on cost and hour burden. Describe efforts to consult with persons outside the agency to obtain their views.

The 60-day Federal Register Notice, which notified the public of NHTSA’s intent to conduct this collection of information and provided a 60-day comment period, was published on April 4, 2022 (Vol. 87, No. 64, pp. 19576-19579). A copy is attached. NHTSA received one comment and one letter in support. Steven Morris provided remarks about ebikes, but no mention of the proposed survey or general traffic safety. The letter in support of the survey was submitted by the National Association of Mutual Insurance Companies (NAMIC).

Mr. Morris takes issue with the prohibition on using ebikes on an Ohio National Forest Service bicycle trail system. He also supplied a photo of his ebike contending that they do no more damage than regular bikes to the trails. His remarks did not mention the proposed survey. In NAMIC’s letter addressed to NHTSA Administrator Steven Cliff, “NAMIC supports NHTSA’s proposed collection of information as necessary and appropriate and believes that the information surveyed will have significant practical utility.” They further believe that the survey effort will provide valuable information to help their members work with NHTSA, State legislators and regulars, and law enforcement agencies to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety. NAMIC recognizes the importance of the collection citing recent statistics from NHTSA and the Governors Highway Safety Administration of the rising number of vulnerable road user deaths.

Comments on the proposed information collection are appreciated. Thank you to NAMIC for providing thoughtful commentary as to the importance of conducting the National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors.

National experts at NHTSA and ICF, the Contractor, have collaborated on and agreed on the survey instrument and methodology. Prior to the survey development work, NHTSA program and regional offices and subject matter experts and planners from ICF and the Texas Transportation Institute provided significant input on the topics to be addressed in the survey.

The Federal Register notice notifying the public of NHTSA’s intent to submit this information collection to the Office of Management and Budget, and providing a 30-day comment period, was published on June 16, 2022 (Vol. 87, No. 116, pp. 36369-36372).

  1. Explain any decision to provide any payment or gift to respondents, other than remuneration of contractors or grantees.


We plan to offer all sampled households a $1 pre-survey incentive. A dollar bill will be included in the first mailing as motivation to complete the survey.

We propose including two experimental conditions in the mini-pilot varying the post-incentive—one group will receive a $5 Amazon gift code and the other group will receive a $10 Amazon gift code. We will equally split the sample across the two conditions to evaluate the most effective approach.

Pending the outcome of the mini-pilot experiment, we will employ an incentive plan consisting of a $1 cash pre‑incentive inserted into the first contact and a $5 or $10 post‑incentive in the form of an Amazon gift code for web and mail respondents, contingent on survey completion.

Our experience indicates that anything less than the proposed compensation would likely result in failure to survey enough participants to provide adequate statistical power. Other studies by NHTSA (Young Driver Survey - 2127-0704, Motor Vehicle Occupant Safety Survey - 2127-0645) have confirmed that this level of compensation is necessary to meet recruiting requirements. 

  1. Describe any assurance of confidentiality provided to respondents and the basis for the assurance in statute, regulation, or agency policy. If the collection requires a systems of records notice (SORN) or privacy impact assessment (PIA), those should be cited and described here.


In a letter mailed to all sampled households, we will promise that the data will be kept private, used only for statistical purposes, and protected to the full extent of the law. The survey form includes an informed consent statement, which promises that no individual results and no personally identifiable information will be published, and that no personal results will be shared with any licensing regulatory authority. All published results will provide only summary statistics that cannot be used to identify any individual or individual’s responses. Participation in the survey is voluntary. There will not be any identifying information such as names, addresses, telephone numbers, or social security numbers in the database delivered to NHTSA.

A SORN is not required for this research as PII will not create a Privacy Act System of records. The survey response data and household address are held in separate files. While the contractor will access information by unique Master ID, the access will be limited. The PII (an address file) will be accessed four times to flag households that respond to the survey to avoid sending them future reminders. The contractor will extract an electronic list of the unique ID codes from the response file and will merge the list with the address file before processing the mailing of the reminders to flag households who responded. After the merge, the electronic list of unique ID codes will be destroyed. Other than the mailings, the contractor only accesses the addresses in very limited circumstances, such as when a researcher needs to ensure the quality of the data.

NHTSA has published a PIA for research and studies performed by its Office of Behavioral Safety Research. The Department’s Senior Agency Official for Privacy adjudicated the PIA on June 10, 2019, and it is available at https://www.transportation.gov/individuals/privacy/nhtsa-office-behavioral-safety-research-obsr-research-studies.

  1. Provide additional justification for any questions of a sensitive nature, such as sexual behavior and attitudes, religious beliefs, and other matters that are commonly considered private. This justification should include the reasons why the agency considers the questions necessary, the specific uses to be made of the information, the explanation to be given to persons from whom the information is requested, and any steps to be taken to obtain their consent.

The questionnaire includes five items about driver behaviors toward cyclists, including the following:

  • Whether drivers maintain three feet of passing distance between their vehicle and a bicyclist

  • Whether drivers double check for bicyclists or pedestrians before pulling out of a driveway or intersection

  • Whether drivers check the rearview mirrors to make sure a bicyclist is not behind them

  • Whether drivers check their rearview mirrors after parking to make sure there is no cyclist coming toward them

  • Whether drivers pay special attention to bicyclists during the dusk or dawn hours.

A few other items ask respondents to report if they have been involved in collisions as a result of distraction from a mobile device, or how they use mobile devices while walking or biking. There is also a short series asking respondents about their use of illumination gear while walking or riding at night. While some of these aforementioned behaviors may be considered unsafe, none of them should be particularly sensitive to report. Finally, the questionnaire includes a few questions on other unsafe behaviors such as driving/walking/biking after drinking and texting and driving/biking.

Additionally, the survey instrument contains standard demographic questions related to age, gender, and income.

Collecting this information is critical to understanding the safety problem, and it will only be used and reported in aggregate. The survey data collection does not contain additional questions related to matters that are commonly considered sensitive or private.

  1. Provide estimates of the hour burden of the collection of information on the respondents and estimates of the annualized labor cost to respondents associated with that hour burden.



NHTSA estimates the total burden of this information collection by estimating the burden to those who NHTSA contacts but do not respond (non-responders) and those who respond and are eligible for participation (eligible respondents or actual participants). As virtually all households have at least one adult 18 or older, all households are eligible to participate and, as such, no burden is calculated for ineligible respondents. The estimated time to contact 22,943 potential participants (actual participants and non-responders) for the survey and 459 potential participants (actual participants and non-responders) for the pilot is one minute per person per contact attempt. Contact attempts will be made in five waves with fewer potential participants contacted in each subsequent wave. The mailings for each of the five waves is summarized in Table 1. Data collection will involve a pilot administration of the survey to 150 randomly selected respondents and a full administration of the survey with 7,500 randomly selected respondents during the main data collection effort. Each respondent will be administered the survey once. The total estimated annual burden is 4,182 hours for the project activities. Tables 2 and 3 summarize the calculation of this estimated burden.


Table 1. NHTSA Form Number, Description, and Mailing Wave.

NHTSA Form Number

Description

Mailing Wave

1148

Questionnaire – National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors (English)

3, 5

1613

Questionnaire – National Survey of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors (Spanish)

3, 5

1614

Initial Invitation Letter

1

1615

Reminder Postcard #1

2

1616

Cover Letter included with 1st mailing of the paper survey

3

1617

Reminder Postcard #2

4

1618

Cover Letter included with 2nd mailing of the paper survey

5



To estimate overall mean survey length, we divided the population into 4 distinct categories. These are shown below in Table 4 along with an estimated breakdown of the population and proportion of the survey they will complete. The research team used a variety of sources to arrive at these estimates of the population percentages.8 Based on the current survey length and other surveys of similar length, it is estimated the survey will take 20 minutes to complete.



Table 2. Estimated Total Burden for Pilot Survey.

Wave

(Form Number)

Number of Contacts

Participant Type

Estimated Burden per Sample Unit

(in minutes)

Frequency of Burden

Number of Sample Units

Burden Hours*

Total Burden Hours*

Wave 1


(NHTSA Form 1614)

459

Contacted potential participant – Non-respondent

1

1

409

7

25

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

50

18

Wave 2


(NHTSA Form 1615)

409

Contacted potential participant – Non-respondent

1

1

379

7

18

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

30

11

Wave 3


(NHTSA Forms 1148, 1613, 1616)

379

Contacted potential participant – Non-respondent

1

1

341

6

20

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

38

14

Wave 4


(NHTSA Form 1617)

341

Contacted potential participant – Non-respondent

1

1

322

6

13

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

19

7

Wave 5


(NHTSA Forms 1148, 1613, 1618)

322

Contacted potential participant – Non-respondent

1

1

309

6

11

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

13

5

Total


87

* Rounded up to the nearest hour.







Table 3. Estimated Total Burden for Main Data Collection Survey.

Wave

(Form Number)

Number of Contacts

Participant Type

Estimated Burden per Sample Unit

(in minutes)

Frequency of Burden

Number of Sample Units

Burden Hours*

Total Burden Hours*

Wave 1


(NHTSA Form 1614)

22,943

Contacted potential participant –

Non-respondent

1

1

20,443

341

1,216

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

2,500

875

Wave 2


(NHTSA Form 1615)

20,443

Contacted potential participant –

Non-respondent

1

1

18,943

316

841

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

1,500

525

Wave 3


(NHTSA Forms 1148, 1613, 1616)

18,943

Contacted potential participant –

Non-respondent

1

1

17,049

285

948

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

1,894

663

Wave 4


(NHTSA Form 1617)

17,049

Contacted potential participant –

Non-respondent

1

1

16,102

269

601

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

947

332

Wave 5


(NHTSA Forms 1148, 1613, 1618)

16,102

Contacted potential participant –

Non-respondent

1

1

15,443

258

489

Recruited participant – Eligible respondent

21

1

659

231

Total


4,095

* Rounded up to the nearest hour.









Table 4. Population Groups and Percent of Survey Question Presented

Respondent Group

Percent of Survey Questions Presented

Estimated Population

Total


100%

Walked and biked in past year

100%

35%

Walked in the past year and biked over a year ago

67%

45%

Walked in the past year and never ridden a bike

50%

10%

Never walked + never biked (Disabled)

33%

10%



For the pilot survey, a mass mailing using USPS DSF to 500 addresses, of which 459 are expected to be valid contact addresses, is expected to reach 150 willing participants, age 18 and older. The time for a non-respondent at each wave is expected to be one minute for a total of 32 hours cumulated across waves. Participants are expected to take 1 minute to read the invite letter/reminder postcard and 20 minutes to complete the survey (150 people, 21 minutes average length, 55 hours total, cumulated across waves).

For the main data collection survey, a mass mailing using USPS DSF to 25,000, of which 22,943 are expected to be valid contact addresses, is expected to reach 7,500 willing participants, ages 18 and older. The time for a non-respondent at each wave is expected to be one minute for a total of 1,469 hours cumulated across waves. As with the pilot survey, participants are expected to take 1 minute to read the invite letter/reminder postcard and 20 minutes to complete the survey (7,500 people, 20 minutes average length, 2,626 hours total, cumulated across waves).

The informed consent information is provided in the mailings and at the beginning of the paper-based survey. There is not a separate informed consent form.

The opportunity cost to respondents is computed using an average hourly wage. Based on the 2020 mean hourly wage for all occupations in the United States, the maximum total input cost is estimated as follows:

$27.07 per hour9 × 4,182 hours = $113,206.74

This represents an average of $9.02 opportunity cost per completed survey for the 150 pilot data collection completes and 7,500 main data collection completes. In addition, this represents an average of $0.45 opportunity cost per invite/reminder attempt at recruitment across the 5 contact waves. Table 5 provides a summary of the estimated burden hours and labor costs associated with those submissions.

Table 5. Burden Estimates by NHTSA Form for the Pilot and Main Data Collection Surveys Combined.

Information Collection

Number of Responses

Burden per Response

(in minutes)

Burden per Respondent

(in minutes)

Average Hourly Opportunity Cost

Labor Cost Per Submission

Total Burden Hours

Total Opportunity Costs

NHTSA Forms 1148 and 1613

7,650

20

20

$27.07

$9.0233

2,550

$69,028.50

NHTSA Form 1614

23,850*

1

1

$27.07

$0.4512

398*

$10,773.86

NHTSA Form 1615

20,852

1

1

$27.07

$0.4512

348

$9,420.36

NHTSA Form 1616

19,322

1

1

$27.07

$0.4512

322

$8,716.54

NHTSA Form 1617

17,390

1

1

$27.07

$0.4512

290

$7,850.30

NHTSA Form 1618

16,424

1

1

$27.07

$0.4512

274

$7,417.18

Total






4,182

$113,206.74

* Rounded up based on individual waves.


  1. Provide an estimate of the total annual cost burden to respondents or record keepers resulting from the collection of information. Do not include the cost of any hour burden already reflected in the response provided in question 12.


Participation in this study is voluntary, and there are no costs to respondents beyond the time spent completing the questionnaires.

  1. Provide estimates of annualized costs to the Federal government. Provide a description of the method used to estimate cost, which should include quantification of hours, operational expenses (such as equipment, overhead, printing, and support staff), and any other expense that would not have been incurred without this collection of information.

This is a one-time data collection. The Federal Government’s awarded amount of this task order is $883,685 over 42 months which includes up to $65,375 for incentives (incentives are included for participants of the cognitive interviewing, usability testing, and survey). Since data collection will take less than a year, the annualized cost is the same. In addition to administering the survey, this cost includes updating and testing the survey, cleaning and analyzing the data, updating and developing the final report, and other project planning and administrative costs. The estimated cost in terms of Federal Government time is approximately 210 hours for the Contracting Officer’s Representative (COR) and 20 hours for the supervisor for about $12,000 in wages. These costs are separate from the task order award amount. Therefore, the estimated total cost to the Federal government for this information collection is $895,685.

  1. Explain the reasons for any program changes or adjustments reported on the burden worksheet. If this is a new collection, the program change will be entire burden cost and number of burden hours reported in response to questions 12 and 13. If this is a renewal or reinstatement, the change is the difference between the new burden estimates and the burden estimates from the last OMB approval.



This is a request to reinstate with modification a previously approved collection. The previous administration of this survey expired July 19, 2015: OMB Control No. 2127-0684.

This ICR is being updated as the number of interviews and costs have changed because, for the first time, this collection will include web and paper surveys, which requires a larger sample, and general cost for surveys have changed since the previous survey in 2012. In addition, the burden for the last approved survey was calculated only using the estimated number of completed surveys. The current survey burden is calculated using both the estimated number of completed surveys as well as the estimated number of contacts of potential respondents. The survey completion time remained the same with both the 2012 survey and the current ICR at 20 minutes.

The number of respondents for the pilot survey increased from 15 to 150. In addition to the additional respondents, the number of households contacted is included in the burden estimate which overall results in an increase of burden by 82 hours for the pilot survey.

While the number of participants for the main data collection is fewer than the last survey collection (7,500 vs. 9,000 respondents), again, the time associated with contacting each of the households (22,943) is included in the burden estimate. This results in an increase in time burden resulting in a net increase of 1,095 for the main data collection.

When both the pilot survey and main data collection survey burden are combined, there is an increase of 1,177 burden hours for a total of 4,182 burden hours for this ICR. See Table 6 for details.


Table 6. Estimated Burden for New and Previous Collections.




Last OMB Collection Approval

New Collection

Difference

Pilot Survey




N Respondents

15

150

(459 contacts)

+135

Cost Burden

$64

$2,355.09

+$2,291.09

Time Burden (hours)

5

87

+82

Main Data Collection Survey




N Respondents

9,000

7,500

(22,943 households contacted)

-1500

Cost Burden

$38,250

$110,851.65

+$72,601.65

Time Burden (hours)

3,000

4,095

+1,095

TOTAL




N Respondents

9,015


7,650

(23,402 households contacted)

-1,365

Cost Burden

$38,314

$113,206.74

+$74,892.74

Time Burden (hours)

3,005

4,182

+1,177




  1. For collections of information whose results will be published, outline plans for tabulation and publication. Address any complex analytical techniques that will be used. Provide the time schedule for the entire project, including beginning and ending dates of the collection of information, completion of report, publication dates, and other actions as applicable.


NHTSA intends to publish a technical report that will include survey results and methodology details. The results section will include summary statistics and tables, as well as the results of statistical analysis of the information, but it will not include any personal information. Figures and tables will be presented with narrative text. The data presentations will be largely made up of percentage distributions and cross-tabulations. The data will be segmented by the following characteristics: age, race, gender, household income, and respondent category. The final sample size of each cell will determine the categories each characteristic will be analyzed by. Only cells which have sufficient sample to draw reliable estimates will be used in the analysis and reported on. The results section will also include relevant trends using the previous administrations of the survey.

The methodology portion of the report will include information on the sampling frame, survey participation rate, weighting procedures, and copies of the questionnaires in both English and Spanish.

The current plan is for the final technical report and summary sheets to be published in early 2023. These plans are based upon data collection in late Summer and Fall 2022.

  1. If seeking approval to not display the expiration date for OMB approval of the information collection, explain the reasons that display would be inappropriate.


NHTSA will display the expiration date for OMB approval.

  1. Explain each exception to the topics of the certification statement identified in "Certification for Paperwork Reduction Act Submissions." The required certifications can be found at 5 CFR 1320.9.

No exceptions to the certification statement are made.

The following statement will be provided to respondents on the survey documents:

Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: A federal agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to, nor shall a person be subject to a penalty for failure to comply with, a collection of information subject to the requirements of the Paperwork Reduction Act unless that collection of information displays a current valid OMB Control Number. The OMB Control Number for this information collection is 2127-0684. The average amount of time to complete this survey is 20 minutes. All responses to this collection of information are voluntary. If you have comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, send them to: Information Collection Clearance Officer, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE, Room W45-205, Washington, DC, 20590.

The NHTSA Form numbers will also be displayed.



1 Royal, D. & Miller-Steiger, D. (2008, August). National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume II: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 810 972). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1845

Royal, D. & Miller-Steiger, D. (2008, August). National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume 1: Summary report (Report No. DOT HS 810 971). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1844

Royal, D. & Miller-Steiger, D. (2008, August). National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume III: Methods report (Report No. DOT HS 810 972). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1845

2 Schroeder, P. & Wilbur, M. (2013, October). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume 1: Summary report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 A). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1956

Schroeder, P. & Wilbur, M. (2013, October). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume 2: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 B). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1957

Schroeder, P. & Wilbur, M. (2013, October). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume 3: Methodology report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 C). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1958

3 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2021, March). Quick facts 2019 (Report No. DOT HS 813 124). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/813124

4 Highway safety research and development, 23 U.S.C. § 403. www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/USCODE-2012-title23/pdf/USCODE-2012-title23-chap4-sec403.pdf

5 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2021, March). Quick facts 2019 (Report No. DOT HS 813 124). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/813124

6 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2020, March). Pedestrians: 2018 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 812 850). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812850

7 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. (2020, July, revised). Bicyclists and other cyclists: 2018 data (Traffic Safety Facts. Report No. DOT HS 812 884). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812884

8 Schroeder, P. & Wilbur, M. (2013, October). 2012 National survey of bicyclist and pedestrian attitudes and behavior, volume 2: Findings report (Report No. DOT HS 811 841 B). National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/1957

Bialik, K. (2017, July 27). 7 facts about Americans with disabilities. Pew Research Center. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/07/27/7-facts-about-americans-with-disabilities

Chalabi, M. (2015, April 16). How many Americans don’t know how to ride a bike? FiveThirtyEight. https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-many-americans-dont-know-how-to-ride-a-bike/;

Lange, D. (2021, March 4). Cycling - Statistics & facts. Statista. www.statista.com/topics/1686/cycling/#dossierSummary

Schmitt, A. (2015, March 4). Survey: 100 million Americans bike each year, but few make it a habit. StreetsBlogUSA. https://usa.streetsblog.org/2015/03/04/survey-100-million-americans-bike-each-year-but-few-make-it-a-habit/

Burrows, M. (2019, May 14). Younger workers in cities more likely to bike to work. U.S. Census Bureau. www.census.gov/library/stories/2019/05/younger-workers-in-cities-more-likely-to-bike-to-work.html

Wilson, K. (2020, November 25). Study: The biggest COVID-19 bike booms weren’t where you think. StreetsBlogUSA. https://usa.streetsblog.org/2020/11/25/study-the-biggest-covid-19-bike-booms-werent-where-you-think/

9 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor and Statistics, May 2020 National Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates United States: https://www.bls.gov/oes/current/oes_nat.htm#00-0000, Accessed June 2, 2021.


File Typeapplication/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.wordprocessingml.document
AuthorRoach, Callie (NHTSA)
File Modified0000-00-00
File Created2022-06-17

© 2022 OMB.report | Privacy Policy