Sample Analysis Tables

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National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System

Sample Analysis Tables

OMB: 0920-0770

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HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
HIV-negativea
No.
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

11

Education
Less than high school
High school diploma or equivalent
Some college or technical degree
College degree or more
Household incomee
At or below the federal poverty level
Above the federal poverty level
Health insurance
Yes
No
Visited a health care provider, past 12 months
Yes
No
Homeless,f past 12 months
Yes
No
Incarcerated,g past 12 months
Yes
No

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

%

No.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023 (cont)
HIV-negativea
No.

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

%

12

City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.
a
Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b
Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
c
Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory
result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.
d
Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
e
Poverty level is based on household income and household size.
f
Living on the street, in a shelter, in a single-room–occupancy hotel, or in a car.
g
Having been held in a detention center, jail, or prison for more than 24 hours.

No.

Table 2. HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
HIV-positivea
No.

%

Total No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (footnotes only).
Note. Data include all participants with a valid NHBS HIV test result.
a
Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or
supplemental laboratory-based testing.
b
Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

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No.

Table 3. HIV testing among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Ever tested
No.

%

Tested in past
12 monthsa
No.

%

Total No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Note. Data include all participants who did not report a previous HIV-positive test result and participants who received their first HIV-positive test result
less than 12 months before interview.
a “'Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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No.

Table 4. Setting of most recent HIV test among men who have sex with men and who were tested for HIV during
the 12 months before interview—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Clinical settinga
No.

(%)

Nonclinical settingb
No.

(%)

Total No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: HMO, health maintenance organization (footnotes only).
Note. Data report setting of most recent HIV test. Data exclude participants who did not report an HIV test during the 12 months before interview or
who reported receiving an HIV-positive test result more than 12 months before interview. Percentages may not add to 100 because of missing data
and “other” locations, which could not be classified as clinical or nonclinical settings.

a Clinical settings include private doctor’s office (including HMO), emergency department, hospital (inpatient), public health clinic or community health

center, family planning or obstetrics clinic, correctional facility, or drug treatment program.

b Nonclinical settings include HIV counseling and testing site, HIV street outreach program or mobile unit, needle exchange program, or home.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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No.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 5. Sexual behavior with female and male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S.
cities, 2023

Vaginal sex
No.
%

With female sex partners
Condomless
vaginal sex
Anal sex
No.
%
No.
%

With male sex partners
Condomless anal sex
No.
%

Anal sex
No.
%

Condomless anal sex
No.
%

Total No.

HIV-negativea

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

16

HIV-positivec
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resultd
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

c Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

No.

d Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result

but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 6. Sexual behavior with male partners in the 12 months before interview among men who have sex with men, by partner type—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Main male partner
Anal sex
Condomless anal sex
No.
%
No.
%

Casual male partner
Anal sex
Condomless anal sex
No.
%
No.
%

Main and casual male
partners—sex of any typea
No.
%

Total No.

HIV-negativeb

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

17

HIV-positived
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral or anal sex with at least 1 male main partner and at least 1 male casual partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

No.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result

but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 7. Anal sex with the most recent sex partner during the 3 months before interview among men whose last sex partner was male—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S.
cities, 2023

18

HIV-negativeh
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoi
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positivej
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoi
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resultk
Total

Insertivea anal sex only
Totalc
Condomlesse
No.
%
No.
%

Receptiveb anal sex only
Totalc
Condomlessf
No.
%
No.
%

Both insertivea and receptiveb anal sex
Totalc
Condomlessg
No.
%
No.
%

No anal sex in the
past 3 monthsc,d
No.
%

Total No.

Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note.Outcomes are only reported for men whose most recent sex partner was male. Men whose most recent sex partner was female (n=353) or unknown gender (n=39) were excluded. Percentages may not add to 100 because of missing data.
a The participant's most recent sex partner was male and the participant placed his penis in the anus of his sex partner one or more times during the 3 months before interview.
b The participant's most recent sex partner was male and the sex partner placed his penis in the participant's anus one or more times during the 3 months before interview.
c The categories—insertive anal sex, receptive anal sex, both insertive and receptive anal sex, and no anal sex—are mutually exclusive.

d The participant's most recent sex partner was male and the participant reported neither insertive anal sex nor receptive anal sex with the sex partner during the 3 months before interview. Includes participants who had oral sex but not anal sex

with the most recent sex partner during the 3 months before interview and those who last had sex more than 3 months before interview.

e The participant did not use a condom during one or more of the times he had insertive anal sex with the most recent sex partner during the 3 months before interview.
f The participant did not use a condom during one or more of the times he had receptive anal sex with the most recent sex partner during the 3 months before interview.

g The participant did not use a condom during one or more of the times he had insertive anal sex or did not use a condom during one or more of the times he had receptive anal sex with the most recent sex partner during the 3 months

before interview.

No.

h Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
i Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

j Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
k Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result

but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 8a. Receipt of HIV prevention in the 12 months before interview among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S.
cities, 2023
Free condomsa
No.
%

Individual- or group-level
interventionb
No.
%

PrEP awarenessc
No.
%

No.

PrEP used

%

Total No.

e

HIV-negative
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

19

HIV-positiveg
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

—

—

—

—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

No valid NHBS HIV test resulth
Total

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

Abbreviations: PrEP; preexposure prophylaxis; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a
Excludes condoms received from friends, relatives, or sex partners.

b

Individual-level intervention defined as a one-on-one conversation with an outreach worker, a counselor, or a prevention program worker about ways to prevent HIV. Group-level intervention defined as a small-group
discussion that is part of an organized session about ways to prevent HIV; excludes informal discussions with friends. Conversations that were part of obtaining an HIV test were excluded.
c
Ever heard of PrEP, an antiretroviral medicine taken for months or years by a person who is HIV-negative to reduce the risk of getting HIV.

d
e
f
g
h

Took PrEP at any point during the 12 months before interview to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

No.

Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a
previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 8b. Receipt of HIV prevention in the 12 months before interview among men who have sex with men—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Free condomsa
No.
%

Individual- or group-level
interventionb
No.
%

PrEP awarenessc
No.
%

PrEP used
No.
%

Total No.

HIV-negativee
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
HIV-positivef
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

Abbreviations: PrEP; preexposure prophylaxis; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a
Excludes condoms received from friends, relatives, or sex partners.

b

Individual-level intervention defined as a one-on-one conversation with an outreach worker, a counselor, or a prevention program worker about ways to prevent HIV.
Group-level intervention defined as a small-group discussion that is part of an organized session about ways to prevent HIV; excludes informal discussions with friends.
Conversations that were part of obtaining an HIV test were excluded.
c
Ever heard of PrEP, an antiretroviral medicine taken for months or years by a person who is HIV-negative to reduce the risk of getting HIV.

d
e
f

Took PrEP at any point during the 12 months before interview to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

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No.

HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report

Table 9. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Diagnosis during the 12 months before interview
Any bacterial STIa
No.

%

Chlamydia
No.

%

Gonorrhea
No.

%

Diagnosis, ever
Syphilis
No.

Genital warts
%

No.

%

Genital herpes
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

21

HIV-positived
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviations: STI, sexually transmitted infection; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Any bacterial STI includes having received a diagnosis of gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.

No.

c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory test, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result

but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 10. Drug use in the 12 months before interview and binge drinking in the 30
days before interview among men who have sex with men—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Used drug
No.

%

HIV-negativea

Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any injection drugs
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downerc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
HIV-positivee
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any injection drugs
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downerc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
No valid NHBS HIV test resultf
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any injection drugs
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downerc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
Disclaimer: The use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Department
of Health and Human Services or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Denominator is the total number of participants in the category; HIV-negative participants: n = 7,125; HIVpositive participants: n = 2,174; participants without a valid NHBS HIV test result: n = 805. Responses are not
mutually exclusive; percentages may not add to 100.
a
Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b
Defined as 5 or more drinks at one sitting during the 30 days before interview.
c
Such as Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, or Xanax.
d
Such as OxyContin, Vicodin, morphine, or Percocet.
e
Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental
laboratory-based testing.
f
Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not
consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a
previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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No.

Table 11. Additional outcomes among men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2023
Number of male
sex partners

Exchange sexa

Median (Q1–Q3)

No.

Condomless sex with an
HIV-discordant partner at
last sexb

%

No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negativec
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positivee
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resultf
Total
Abbreviations: Q, quartile; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Unless otherwise stated, outcomes are reported for the 12 months before interview.

a “Exchange sex” refers to giving or receiving money or drugs from a male casual partner in exchange for sex.

b “Condomless sex” refers to whether the participant reported engaging in vaginal or anal sex without a condom during his most recent sexual encounter. “HIV-discordant

partner” refers to a sex partner of different or unknown HIV status.

c Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
d Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

e Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

f Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory

result, discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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No.

Table 12. Receipt of HIV care and treatment among self-reported HIV-positive men who have sex with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance,
20 U.S. cities, 2023
Visited health care provider about HIV
Within a month
after diagnosis

Ever
No.

%

No.

%

During past 6 months
No.

%

Currently taking
antiretrovirals
No.

%

Total No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoa
Native Hawaiian/
Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (footnotes only).
Note. Data include all participants who reported having ever received an HIV-positive test result (which may include those who did not have a valid test result, positive or negative, or
who did not consent to the HIV test). “Past 6 months” refers to the 6 months before interview.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
HIV-negativea
No.
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50

13

Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
Education
Less than high school
High school diploma or equivalent
Some college or technical degree
College degree or more
Household incomee
At or below the federal poverty level
Above the federal poverty level
Health insurance
Yes
No
Visited a health care provider, past 12 months
Yes
No
Homeless,f past 12 months
Yes
No

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

%

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024 (cont)
HIV-negativea
No.

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

%

Incarcerated,g past 12 months
Yes
No

14

City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.

a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
c Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result,

had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

d Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
e Poverty level is based on household income and household size.
f Living on the street, in a shelter, in a single-room–occupancy hotel, or in a car.
g Having been held in a detention center, jail, or prison for more than 24 hours.

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 2. HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs, by gender—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Male
HIV-positivea
No.
%

Total
No.

Female
HIV-positivea
No.
%

Total
No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

15

City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance [footnotes only].
Note. Data include all participants with a valid NHBS HIV test result.

a Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Transgender
HIV-positivea
Total
No.
%
No.

Full sample
HIV-positivea
No.
%

Total
No.

No.

Table 3. HIV testing among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Tested in past 12 monthsa

Ever tested
No.

%

No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Note. CDC recommends that all persons who inject drugs be tested for HIV at least annually. Data include all participants who did not report a previous
HIV-positive test result and participants who received their first HIV-positive test result less than 12 months before interview.
a “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

16

No.

Table 4. Setting of most recent HIV test among persons who inject drugs and who were tested for HIV in the 12
months before interview—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Clinical settinga
No.

%

Nonclinical settingb
No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: HMO, health maintenance organization [footnotes only].
Note. Data report setting of most recent HIV test. Data include participants who reported an HIV test during the 12 months before interview.
Percentages may not add to 100 because of missing data and “Other” locations, which could not be classified as clinical/nonclinical settings.

a Clinical settings include private doctor’s office (including HMO), emergency department, hospital (inpatient), public health clinic or community health

center, family planning or obstetrics clinic, correctional facility, or drug treatment program.

b Nonclinical settings include HIV counseling and testing site, HIV street outreach program or mobile unit, syringe services program, or home.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

17

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 5. Sexual behavior with female and male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among males who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024

Vaginal sex
No.
%

With female sex partners
Condomless
vaginal sex
Anal sex
No.
%
No.
%

With male sex partners
Condomless
anal sex
No.
%

Oral or anal sex
No.
%

Anal sex
No.
%

Condomless
anal sex
No.
%

With males and
females—sex of
any typea
No.
%

Total
males
No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

18

HIV-positived
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex with at least 1 female partner and oral or anal sex with at least 1 male partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test

No.

result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 6. Sexual behavior with female sex partners in the 12 months before interview among males who inject drugs, by partner type—
National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Main female partner
Casual female partner
Condomless
Condomless
Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex
No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Main and casual
female partners—
sex of any typea
No.

%

Total
males
No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

HIV-positived
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex with at least 1 female main partner and at least 1 female casual partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

19

No.

Table 7. Sexual behavior with male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among females who inject drugs—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Vaginal sex
No.

%

Condomless
vaginal sex
No.

%

Anal sex
No.

Condomless anal sex
%

No.

%

Total
females
No.

HIV-negativea
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

HIV-positivec
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

No valid NHBS HIV test resultd
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

c Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
d Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

20

No.

Table 8. Sexual behavior with male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among females who inject drugs, by partner type—
National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Main male partner

Casual male partner

Condomless
Condomless
Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex
No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Main and casual
male partners—
sex of any typea
No.

%

Total
females
No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

HIV-positived
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex with at least 1 male main partner and at least 1 male casual partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

21

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 9. Injection drug use in the 12 months before interview, by selected drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024

22

HIV-negativeb
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other
Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other
Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

Heroin
Injected, past
Injected daily
12 months
No.
%
No.
%

Speedballa
Injected, past
Injected daily
12 months
No.
%
No.
%

Powder or crack cocaine
Injected, past
Injected daily
12 months
No.
%
No.
%

Methamphetamine
Injected, past
Injected daily
12 months
No.
%
No.
%

Prescription opioids
Injected, past
Injected daily
12 months
No.
%
No.
%

Other drug
Injected, past
12 months
No.
%

Total
No.

No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total

No.

Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months preceding interview.
a Heroin and cocaine being injected together.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test
result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 10. Sharing of injection equipment in the 12 months before interview among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral
Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Receptive sharing
Syringesa
No.
%

Syringes to
divide drugsc
No.
%

Injection equipmentb
No.
%

Distributive sharing

No.

Anyd

%

Syringese
No.
%

Total No.

HIV-negativef
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinog
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positiveh
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinog
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulti
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Used a syringe or needle that had already been used by someone else for injection.
b Used a cooker (e.g., spoon, bottle cap) or cotton (to filter particles from drug solution) that had already been used by someone else or shared water for rinsing.
c Divided a drug solution by using a syringe that had already been used by someone else for injection.

d Used a syringe or needle that had already been used by someone else for injection, used a cooker or cotton that had already been used by someone else, shared water for rinsing, or divided

a drug solution by using a syringe that had already been used by someone else for injection.

e Participants who gave their syringe or needle to someone else to use after they had already used it for injection.
f Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.

g Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
h Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

i Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid

test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

20

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 11a. Receipt of HIV prevention materials and services in the 12 months before interview among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Syringes from SSPs

24

HIV-negativee
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positiveg
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulth
Total

No.

%

Syringes from
pharmacy
No.

%

Injection equipment
from SSPs
No.

%

Free condomsa
No.

%

Individual- or grouplevel interventionb
No.

%

PrEP awarenessc
No.

%

PrEP used
No.

%

—

—

—

—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

Total No.

No.

Abbreviations: SSPs, syringe services programs; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance; PrEP, preexposure prophylaxis.
a Excludes condoms received from friends, relatives, or sex partners.
b Individual-level intervention defined as a one-on-one conversation with an outreach worker, a counselor, or a prevention program worker about ways to prevent HIV. Group-level intervention defined as a small-group discussion that is part of an
organized session about ways to prevent HIV; excludes informal discussions with friends. Conversations that were part of obtaining an HIV test were excluded.
c Ever heard of PrEP, an antiretroviral medicine taken for months or years by a person who is HIV-negative to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
d Took PrEP at any point in the 12 months before interview to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
e Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
f Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
g Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
h Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive
test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 11b. Receipt of HIV prevention materials and services in the 12 months before interview among persons who inject drugs, by area of residence—National HIV Behavioral
Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Syringes from SSPs
No.
c

25

HIV-negative
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC

%

Syringes from pharmacy
No.

%

Injection equipment
from SSPs
No.

%

Free condomsa
No.

%

Individual- or grouplevel interventionb
No.

%

PrEP awarenessc
No.

%

PrEP used
No.

%

Total No.

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 11b. Receipt of HIV prevention materials and services in the 12 months before interview among persons who inject drugs, by area of residence—National HIV Behavioral
Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024 (cont)
Syringes from SSPs
No.

%

Syringes from pharmacy
No.

%

Injection equipment
from SSPs
No.

%

Free condomsa
No.

%

Individual- or grouplevel interventionb
No.

%

26

HIV-positived
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Abbreviations: SSPs, syringe services programs; PrEP, preexposure prophylaxis; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance [footnotes only].

PrEP awarenessc
No.

%

PrEP used
No.

%

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

Total No.

a Excludes condoms received from friends, relatives, or sex partners.
b Individual-level intervention defined as a one-on-one conversation with an outreach worker, a counselor, or a prevention program worker about ways to prevent HIV. Group-level intervention defined as a small-group discussion that is part of

an organized session about ways to prevent HIV; excludes informal discussions with friends. Conversations that were part of obtaining an HIV test were excluded.

c Ever heard of PrEP, an antiretroviral medicine taken for months or years by a person who is HIV-negative to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
d Took PrEP at any point in the 12 months before interview to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
e Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
f Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
g Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 12. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Any bacterial STIa
No.
%

Diagnosis during the 12 months preceding interview
Chlamydia
Gonorrhea
No.
%
No.
%

Syphilis
No.

%

Diagnosis, ever
Genital warts
Genital herpes
No.
%
No.
%

Total No.

27

HIV-negativeb
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviations: STI, sexually transmitted infection; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

aAny bacterial STI includes having received a diagnosis of gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis in the 12 months before interview.
bParticipants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

No.

d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test

result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 13. Lifetime testing for, and diagnosis of, hepatitis C among persons who inject drugs—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
HCV testing
No.

%

HCV diagnosisa
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negativeb
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviations: HCV, hepatitis C virus; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Self-reported diagnosis.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an

indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV
test result.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

28

No.

Table 14. Noninjection drug use in the 12 months before interview and binge
drinking in the 30 days before interview among persons who inject
drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Used drug
No.

%

HIV-negativea
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
HIV-positivee
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
No valid NHBS HIV test resultf
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
Disclaimer: The use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the
Department of Health and Human Services or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Denominator is the total number of participants in the category; HIV-negative participants: n = 10,617;
HIV-positive participants: n = 731; participants without a valid NHBS HIV test result: n = 89. Responses are
not mutually exclusive; percentages may not add to 100.

a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Defined as 5 or more drinks within about 2 hours (males) or 4 or more drinks within about 2 hours

(females) in the 30 days before interview.

c Benzodiazepines, such as Valium, Ativan, or Xanax.
d Painkillers, such as Oxycontin, Vicodin, morphine, or Percocet.

e Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental

laboratory-based testing.

f Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did

not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or
reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 15. Additional outcomes among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Sexual behaviors
Number of
opposite sex partners
Median (Q1–Q3)
HIV-negativee
Gender
Male
Female

Transgenderf
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50

30

Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinog
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

Exchange sexa
No.

%

Substance use behaviors

Condomless sex with
an HIV-discordant
partner at last sexb
No.

%

Total
No.

Substance use
disorder treatmentc
No.

%

Safe syringe
disposal onlyd
No.

%

Years since
first injection

Total

Median (Q1–Q3)

No.

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 15. Additional outcomes among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024 (cont)
Sexual behaviors
Number of
opposite sex partners
Median (Q1–Q3)
HIV-positive

Exchange sexa
No.

%

Substance use behaviors

Condomless sex with
an HIV-discordant
partner at last sexb
No.

%

Total
No.

Substance use
disorder treatmentc
No.

%

Safe syringe
disposal onlyd
No.

%

Years since
first injection

Total

Median (Q1–Q3)

No.

h

Gender
Male
Female

Transgenderf

—

—

—

—

—

—

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50

31

Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American

Hispanic/Latinog
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resulti
Total
Abbreviations: Q, quartile; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance; SSP, syringe services program [footnotes only].
Note. NHBS sexual behavior questions assume anatomy based on reported gender (male or female). These questions are not asked of transgender participants. Consequently, transgender participants are not included in calculation of
sexual behavior outcomes in this table.

a For females, “exchange sex” refers to receiving money or drugs from a male casual partner in exchange for sex. For males, “exchange sex” refers to giving money or drugs to a female casual partner in exchange for sex, or giving or receiving

money or drugs from a male casual partner in exchange for sex.

b “Condomless sex” refers to whether the participant reported engaging in vaginal or anal sex without a condom at any time during his or her most recent sexual encounter with an opposite-sex partner. “HIV-discordant partner” refers to a partner of

different or unknown HIV status.

c Participated in a substance use treatment program (including outpatient, inpatient, residential, detox, or 12-step program) in the 12 months before interview.
d Syringes were disposed of by putting them in a medical waste container and/or by exchanging them at an SSP, and no unknown or unsafe disposal method was indicated in the 12 months before interview.
e Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
f Sexual behavior data not available for transgender participants.

No.

g Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
h Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

i Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid

test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

Table 16a. Opioid use–related outcomes among persons who reported injection or noninjection use of opioids—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance,
20 U.S. cities, 2024
Medication-assisted treatment (MAT)
Hooked on opioids before
first injection
No.

%

Used MATa
No.

Unmet need for MATb
%

No.

%

Nonfatal opioid overdosec
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negatived
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoe
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positivef
Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoe
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
No valid NHBS HIV test resultg
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Data include all participants who reported any injection or noninjection use of opioids in the 12 months before interview. Opioids include heroin and painkillers.
a Used medicines, such as methadone or buprenorphine, to treat drug use in the 12 months before interview.
b Tried but unable to obtain medicines, such as methadone or buprenorphine, to treat drug use in the 12 months before interview.
c Passed out, turned blue, or stopped breathing from using heroin or painkillers in the 12 months before interview.
d Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.

e Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
f Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

g Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid

test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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Table 16b. Opioid use–related outcomes among persons who reported injection or noninjection use of opioids, by area of residence—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2024
Medication-assisted treatment (MAT)
Hooked on opioids before
first injection
No.

%

Used MATa
No.

Unmet need for MATb
%

No.

%

Nonfatal opioid overdosec
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negatived
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
HIV-positivee
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance [footnotes only].
Note. Data include all participants who reported any injection or noninjection use of opioids in the 12 months before interview. Opioids include heroin and painkillers.
a Used medicines, such as methadone or buprenorphine, to treat drug use in the 12 months before interview.
b Tried but unable to obtain medicines, such as methadone or buprenorphine, to treat drug use in the 12 months before interview.
c Passed out, turned blue, or stopped breathing from using heroin or painkillers in the 12 months before interview.
d Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
e Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

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Table 17. Receipt of HIV care and treatment among self-reported HIV-positive persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance,
20 U.S. cities, 2024
Visited health care provider about HIV
Within 1 month
after diagnosis

Ever
No.

%

No.

%

During past 6 months
No.

%

Currently taking
anti-HIV medicines
No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Transgender
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
≥50
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoa
Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York City, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance [footnotes only].
Note. Data include all participants who reported having ever received an HIV-positive test result (which may include those who did not have a valid NHBS HIV test result, positive or
negative, or who did not consent to the HIV test). “Past 6 months” refers to the 6 months before interview.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
HIV-negativea
No.
Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinod
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races

13

Education
Less than high school
High school diploma or equivalent
Some college or technical degree
College degree or more
Household incomee
At or below the federal poverty level
Above the federal poverty level
Health insurance
Yes
No
Visited a health care provider, past 12 months
Yes
No
Homeless,f past 12 months
Yes
No

No.

Incarcerated,g past 12 months
Yes
No

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

%

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 1. Selected characteristics of heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025 (cont)
HIV-negativea
No.

%

HIV-positiveb
No.

%

No valid NHBS HIV
test resultc
No.

%

Total
No.

14

City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.

a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
c Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result,

had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

d Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
e Poverty level is based on household income and household size.
f Living on the street, in a shelter, in a single-room–occupancy hotel, or in a car.
g Having been held in a detention center, jail, or prison for more than 24 hours.

%

No.

Table 2. HIV prevalence among heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Male
HIV-positivea
No.

%

Female
HIV-positivea

Total
No.

No.

%

Full sample
Total
No.

HIV-positivea
No.

%

Total
No.

Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance [footnotes only].
Note. Data include participants with a valid NHBS HIV test result.

a Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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Table 3. HIV testing among heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance,
20 U.S. cities, 2025
Tested in past 12 monthsa

Ever tested
No.

%

No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Note. Data include all participants who did not report a previous HIV-positive test result and participants who received their first HIV-positive test result
less than 12 months before interview.
a “Past 12 months” refers to the 12 months before interview.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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Table 4. Setting of most recent HIV test among heterosexually active men and women who were tested for HIV
in the 12 months before interview—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Clinical settinga
No.

%

Nonclinical settingb
No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
City
Atlanta, GA
Baltimore, MD
Chicago, IL
Denver, CO
Detroit, MI
Houston, TX
Indianapolis, IN
Los Angeles, CA
Memphis, TN
New Orleans, LA
New York, NY
Newark, NJ
Philadelphia, PA
Portland, OR
San Diego, CA
San Francisco, CA
San Juan, PR
Seattle, WA
Virginia Beach, VA
Washington, DC
Total
Abbreviation: HMO, health maintenance organization [footnotes only].
Note. Data report setting of most recent HIV test. Data exclude participants who did not report an HIV test in the past 12 months or who
reported receiving an HIV-positive test result more than 12 months before interview. Percentages may not add to 100% due to missing data
and ‘other’ locations, which could not be classified as clinical or nonclinical settings.

a Clinical settings include private doctor’s office (including HMO), emergency department, hospital (inpatient), public health clinic or community health

center, family planning or obstetrics clinic, correctional facility, or drug treatment program.

b Nonclinical settings include HIV counseling and testing site, HIV street outreach program or mobile unit, syringe services program, or home.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

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Table 5. Sexual behavior with female sex partners in the 12 months before interview among heterosexually active men—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Vaginal sex
No.

%

Condomless
vaginal sex
No.

%

Anal sex
No.

Condomless anal sex
%

No.

%

Total
males
No.

HIV-negativea
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinob
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positivec
No valid NHBS HIV test resultd
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

c Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

d Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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Table 6. Sexual behavior with female sex partners in the 12 months before interview among heterosexually active men, by partnertype—
National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Main female partner

Casual female partner

Condomless
Condomless
Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex
No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Main and casual
female partners—
sex of any typea
No.

%

Total
males
No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex with at least 1 female main partner and at least 1 female casual partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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Table 7. Sexual behavior with male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among heterosexually active women—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Vaginal sex
No.

%

Condomless
vaginal sex
No.

%

Anal sex
No.

Condomless anal sex
%

No.

%

Total
females
No.

HIV-negativea
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinab
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positivec
No valid NHBS HIV test resultd
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
b Hispanics/Latinas can be of any race.

c Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

d Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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Table 8. Sexual behavior with male sex partners in the 12 months before interview among heterosexually active women, by partnertype—
National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Main male partner

Casual male partner

Condomless
Condomless
Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex Vaginal or anal sex vaginal or anal sex
No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

No.

%

Main and casual
male partners—
sex of any typea
No.

%

Total
females
No.

HIV-negativeb
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinac
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.

a Participants who reported oral, vaginal, or anal sex with at least 1 male main partner and at least 1 male casual partner in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
c Hispanics/Latinas can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had

discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 9. Receipt of HIV prevention materials and services in the 12 months before interview among heterosexually active men and women—National HIV
Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Free condomsa
No.

Individual- or
group-level interventionb

%

No.

%

PrEP awarenessc
No.

%

PrEP used
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negativee
Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60

22

Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positiveg

—

—

—

—

No valid NHBS HIV test result

—

—

—

—

Total

—

—

—

—

h

Abbreviations: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance; PrEP, preexposure prophylaxis.
a Excludes condoms received from friends, relatives, or sex partners.

b Individual-level intervention defined as a one-on-one conversation with an outreach worker, a counselor, or a prevention program worker about ways to prevent HIV. Group-level intervention defined as a small-group

discussion that is part of an organized session about ways to prevent HIV; excludes informal discussions with friends. Conversations that were part of obtaining an HIV test were excluded.

c Ever heard of PrEP
d Took PrEP at any point in the 12 months before interview to reduce the risk of getting HIV.
e Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
f Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

g Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

h Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or

reported a previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

No.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 10. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections among heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Diagnosis during the 12 months before interview
Any bacterial STIa
No.

%

Chlamydia
No.

%

Diagnosis, ever

Gonorrhea
No.

Syphilis
%

No.

Genital warts
%

No.

%

Genital herpes
No.

%

Total No.

HIV-negativeb
Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian

23

Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoc
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positived
No valid NHBS HIV test resulte
Total
Abbreviations: STI, sexually transmitted infection; HPV, human papillomavirus; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
a Includes diagnosis of gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis in the 12 months before interview.
b Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.

c Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.
d Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

e Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a previous HIV-positive test

result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

No.

Table 11. Noninjection drug use in the 12 months before interview and binge
drinking in the 30 days before interview among heterosexually active men
and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Used drug
No.

%

HIV-negativea

Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
HIV-positivee
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
No valid NHBS HIV test resultf
Binge drinking (past 30 days)b
Any noninjection drugs (excludes binge drinking)
Cocaine
Crack
Downersc
Ecstasy
Heroin
Marijuana
Methamphetamine
Prescription opioidsd
Disclaimer: The use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Department
of Health and Human Services or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Abbreviation: NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Denominator is the total number of participants in the category; HIV-negative participants: n = 9,359;
HIV-positive participants: n = 159; participants without a valid NHBS HIV test result: n = 64. Responses are not
mutually exclusive; percentages may not add to 100.

a Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.

b Defined as 5 or more drinks within about 2 hours (males) or 4 or more drinks within about 2 hours (females)

during the 30 days before interview.

c Benzodiazepines, such as Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, or Xanax.
d Painkillers, such as OxyContin, Vicodin, morphine, or Percocet.

e Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental

laboratory-based testing.

f Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not

consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a
previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

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HIV Surveillance Special Report

Table 12. Additional outcomes among heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Number of opposite
sex partners
Median (Q1–Q3)

Exchange sexa
No.

%

Condomless sex with an
HIV-discordant partner at
last sexb
No.

%

Sexual violencec

Physical violenced

No.

No.

%

%

Total No.

HIV-negativee
Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60

25

Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinof
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
HIV-positiveg
No valid NHBS HIV test resulth
Total
Abbreviations: Q, quartile; NHBS, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance.
Note. Unless otherwise stated, outcomes are reported for the 12 months before interview.

a For females, “exchange sex” refers to receiving money or drugs from a male casual partner in exchange for sex. For males, “exchange sex” refers to giving money or drugs to a female casual partner in exchange for sex.
b “Condomless sex” refers to engaging in vaginal or anal sex without a condom at any time during his or her most recent sexual encounter with an opposite-sex partner. “HIV-discordant partner” refers to a partner of different or

unknown HIV status.

c Sexual violence is defined as being forced or pressured to have vaginal, oral, or anal sex when he or she did not want to in the past 12 months before interview.
d Physical violence is defined as being slapped, punched, shoved, kicked, shaken, or otherwise physically hurt in the past 12 months before interview.
e Participants with a valid negative NHBS HIV test result.
f Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

g Participants with a reactive rapid NHBS HIV test result supported by a second rapid test or supplemental laboratory-based testing.

h Participants who did not have a valid positive or negative NHBS HIV test result, including those who did not consent to the HIV test, had an indeterminate laboratory result, had discordant rapid test results, or reported a

previous HIV-positive test result but had a negative NHBS HIV test result.

No.

Table 13. Receipt of HIV care and treatment among self-reported, HIV-positive, heterosexually active men and women—National HIV Behavioral
Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2025
Visited health care provider about HIV
Within 1 month
after diagnosis

Ever
No.

%

No.

%

During past 6 months
No.

%

Currently taking
antiretrovirals
No.

%

Total No.

Gender
Male
Female
Age at interview (yr)
18–24
25–29
30–39
40–49
50–60
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latinoa
Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander
White
Multiple races
Total
Note. Data include all participants who reported having ever received an HIV-positive test result (which may include those who did not have a valid NHBS test result, positive or
negative, or who did not consent to the HIV test). “Past 6 months” refers to the 6 months before interview.
a Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

HIV Surveillance Special Report

26

No.


File Typeapplication/pdf
File TitleHIV Infection Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 23 U
SubjectHIV infection risk and prevention among men who have sex with men
AuthorCDC/NCHHSTP/DHAP/BCSB
File Modified2022-02-02
File Created2022-02-02

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